Olive Research Institute

Bornova, Turkey

Olive Research Institute

Bornova, Turkey
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Susamci E.,Olive Research Institute | Romero C.,Pablo De Olavide University | Tuncay O.,Ege University | Brenes M.,Pablo De Olavide University
Grasas y Aceites | Year: 2017

Harvested olives require further processing to make them edible due to their content in the bitter substance oleuropein. However, some olives of the Erkence cultivar naturally de-bitter on the tree giving rise to the so-called Hurma olives. In this study, the evolution of the chemical characteristics of Erkence and Hurma olives harvested from the northeast and southwest area of trees located in the Karaburun Peninsula was assayed. It was confirmed that the oleuropein content in Hurma olives was much lower (< 2000 mg/kg fresh weight) than Erkence, which reached 35.000 mg/kg fresh weight at the beginning of the season. In addition, no free or polymerized anthocyanins were found in Hurma fruit in contrast to ripened Erkence fruit. The concentration of glucose was also lower in Hurma than Erkence olives. These results suggest that the enzymatic oxidation of oleuropein could be responsible for the natural de-bittering of Hurma olives during their ripening on the tree. © 2017 CSIC.

Naim Demirtas M.,Malatya Fruit Research Institute | Bolat I.,Harran University | Ercisli S.,Atatürk University | Ikinci A.,Harran University | And 4 more authors.
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Hortorum Cultus | Year: 2010

This study was conducted in Malatya, between 1999 and 2003, and the region's most important dried apricot variety, Hacihaliloglu was used as material. In the study, the effect of 5 different combined or alone pruning treatments on the growth, fruit quality and yield characteristics were determined in comparison with non-pruned trees. Pruning treatments in different periods did not statistically affect phenological features and fruit dimensions but strongly affected total soluble solid and fruit firmness of Hacihaliloglu apricot cultivar. The highest average yield considering trunk cross-sectional area was obtained as 0.34 kg·cm -2 from pre-harvest summer pruning treatment and the highest share of flower bud was observed as 68.29% in pre-harvest summer+winter pruning treatment. Pruning applications significantly affected both shoot diameter and length. The highest shoot diameter and length were obtained from pre-harvest summer+winter pruning application as 8.52 mm and 77.84 cm, respectively. The highest leaf area was determined as 39.43 cm 2 in post harvest pruning treatment.

Kesen S.,University of Gaziantep | Kelebek H.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Sen K.,University of Nevsehir | Ulas M.,Olive Research Institute | Selli S.,Cukurova University
Food Research International | Year: 2013

Aroma and aroma-active compounds of olive oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) was representative of olive oil odor. A total of 75, 57, and 71 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in olive oils obtained from Ayvalik, Gemlik and Memecik cvs., respectively. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in oil samples. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of olive oils. A total of 28, 24 and 32 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extracts of olive oils obtained from Ayvalik, Gemlik and Memecik cvs., respectively. Based on the flavor dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma active compounds identified in the extracts were guaiacol (olive paste, soapy) for Ayvalik (FD: 1024), 1-penten-3-ol (grassy, green plants) for Gemlik (FD: 512) and hexanal (cut grass), octanal (citrus, lemon) and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate (fruity) for Memecik (FD: 1024). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Bektas M.,Olive Research Institute | Ersoy N.,Selcuk University
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2010

In this research, one-year-old apple (Malus domestica L.) nursery trees of several cultivars (Galaxy Gala, Redchief, Scarlet Spur) on MM 106 rootstock were used. Following treatments were applied to each cultivar: 1) pinching, 2) pinching+500 ppm Perlan, 3) 500 ppm Perlan (GA 4+7+ 6BA). The sapling height, sapling diameter, branch number, branch angle, branch length and sapling quality were investigated, respectively. At the end of the research, sapling length, sapling diameter and branch number of Galaxy Gala cultivar were higher than in the other cultivars. Sapling length was similar at Red Chief and Scarlet Spur cultivars. In terms of Scarlet Spur sapling diameter and number of branches were higher than in Red Chief cultivar. There were no significant differences in branch angles and branch lengths. Perlan application to Galaxy Gala cultivar and pinching application to Scarlet Spur cultivar formed the largest branch angles.

Erten L.,Olive Research Institute | Yildiz M.,Ege University
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2011

Verticillium wilt resistance of 77 olive cultivars including 71 domestic and six foreign ones, and four clonal rootstocks available in the olive gene bank, were tested using a highly virulent isolate (D pathotype) of Verticillium dahliae. The pathogen was stem-inoculated into the own-rooted saplings. Most cultivars and rootstocks were found to be extremely susceptible to the disease. 'Sinop No. 1', 'Eǧriburun Nizip', 'Erkence', 'Eǧriburun Tatayn', 'Girit Zeytini' and 'Marantelli' were highly resistant, as their disease severities did not exceed 10%. Additionally, 11 domestic cultivars ('Sari{dotless} Habeşi', 'Yaǧli{dotless}k Çelebi', 'Zoncuk', 'Dilmit', 'Şam', 'Hurma Karaca', 'Erdek Yaǧli{dotless}k', 'Melkabazi{dotless}', 'Yün Çelebi', 'Kan Çelebi' and 'Siyah Salamurali{dotless}k'), two foreign cultivars ('Arbequina' and 'Frantoio') and one wild clonal rootstock ('D36') were found to be resistant, with disease severities less than 30%. On the other hand, the moderately susceptible group comprised ten domestic cultivars ('Ak Zeytin', 'Yaǧ Çelebi', 'Saurani', 'Butko', 'Gemlik', 'Otur', 'Yaǧ Zeytini', 'Belluti', 'Sinop No. 2' and 'Samanli{dotless}'), three foreign cultivars ('Leccino', 'Chemlali' and 'Ascolana') and one wild clonal rootstock ('D9'). The number of cultivars within highly resistant and resistant groups was 17 out of the 71 domestic cultivars from all regions (four from Aegean, seven from southeastern Anatolia, two from Black Sea and three from Marmara). © 2010 Springer Science & Business Media BV.

Koseoglu O.,Olive Research Institute | Kaya U.,Olive Research Institute | Camoglu G.,Ege University | Akkuzu E.,Ege University | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The effect of different irrigation levels on olive (Olea europaea 'Memecik') oil quality parameters was studied in the Aegean region during the 2007/08 and 2008/09 crop seasons. Six different drip irrigation water levels were tested using Class A pan evaporation technique (I 0 (kpc:0), I 0.25 (kpc:0.25), I 0.50 (kpc:0.50), I 0.75 (kpc:0.75), I 1.00 (kpc:1.00), I 1.25 (kpc:1.25). Fruit characteristics such as ripening index, percent oil extraction and quality indices, K 232 and K 270 values, bitterness index and fatty acid composition were analyzed. Most of the parameters varied significantly with irrigation water level. The ripening index of olives responded linearly to the amount of water. I 0.25 olives had the highest oil content (24.4%). The free acidity of the oils varied between 0.21 and 0.60% and responded negatively to irrigation level and the peroxide value of the oils ranged from 1.29 to 1.64 meq O 2/kg oil with no effect of irrigation treatment. The I 1.25 application had a low maturation index, which corresponded to the lowest chlorophyll value. The bitterness index and polyphenol content of the oils varied from 0.71 to 1.71 and 179.83 to 281.83 mg/kg, respectively, and both responded negatively to increasing water dosage. While there were significant differences with amount of irrigation water in palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids, and MUFAs, PUFAs, MUFA/PUFA, there were no significant differences in linolenic and arachidic acids, or in SFAs or the PUFA/SFA ratio.

Cigdem Z.,Olive Research Institute | Isfendiyaroglu M.,Ege University | Ozeker E.,Ege University
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

In recent years, a large amount of ‘Gemlik’ olive variety started to be grown in Aegean Region. ‘Gemlik’ is a black table variety, but it is processed to oil in many areas. Since ‘Gemlik’ olive is a double purpose variety, chemical fruit thinning may be useful to control alternate bearing and standardization of the fruit size. In this study, clearing out the effects of chemical fruit thinning by potassium salt of naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA-K), on fruit yield and quality in ‘Gemlik’, which is one of the important olive cultivar of Turkey, was aimed. Olive trees treated with 180 ppm NAA-K gave 26.6 and 53.1 kg fruit/tree in “off” and “on” years respectively, while the untreated trees gave only 13.6 and 17.8 kg fruit/tree. 180 ppm NAA also gave rise to decreases in figures of most variables and delayed the fruit maturity in both thinning years. In “on” year, 120 ppm NAA increased the size (fruit/kg), and dimensions (width and length) of olive fruits together with 100 ppm. In “on” years, NAA treatments at 100–120 ppm might be useful to increase the fruit dimensions in ‘Gemlik’ olive. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.

Karaaslan D.,Dicle University | Hakan M.,Olive Research Institute | Ekinci R.,Dicle University | Boydak E.,Bingöl University
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2012

This study was conducted to determine the effect of six different seeding dates (15th April, 1stMay, 15th May, 1st June, 15th June and 30th June) on the yield and yield components of the soybean. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with split plot having four replicates. The studies were conducted at GAP International Agricultural Research and Training Center in 2004, 2005 and 2006 years. The results indicated that the cultivars were significantly influenced by the different seeding dates for the traits of plant height (PH), first pod height (FPH), pod number (PN), weight for 100 seeds (SW), seed yield (SY), oil yield (OY) and protein yield (PY), It was observed that cv. NE3399 had the highest seed yield while the lowest seed yield was given by UMUT2002.

Dervis S.,Mustafa Kemal University | Mercado-Blanco J.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Erten L.,Olive Research Institute | Valverde-Corredor A.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Perez-Artes E.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

A comprehensive survey on the prevalence and incidence of Verticillium wilt of olive in Turkey has been conducted over 6 years (2003-2008). Vegetative compatibility group (VCG) assessment and PCR-based molecular pathotyping were used to evaluate the distribution of the defoliating (D) and nondefoliating (ND) pathotypes of Verticillium dahliae in surveyed areas. Pathogen prevalence was 35% of all olive orchards inspected and incidence of the disease reached 3.1%. VCG1A was predominant (29.3%) and infected all major cultivars grown in Turkey. The other two VCGs detected (2A and 4B) were of minor relevance (4.9% and 0.9%, respectively). Disease incidence caused by VCG1A infections was higher (ranging from 1.1% to 6.9%) than that caused by VCG2A and VCG4B in 10 provinces (Manisa, Aydin, Kahramanmaras, Izmir, Mugla, Kilis, Denizli, Gaziantep, Mardin and Balikesir). However, VCG2A and 4B were more prevalent (and responsible for higher disease incidence) than VCG1A in three provinces (Hatay, Osmaniye and Bursa). Finally, VCG1A isolates were found in all provinces except Canakkale, and simultaneous presence of the three VCGs was only verified in Hatay province. An artificial inoculation bioassay (19 representative V. dahliae isolates included) revealed that VCG1A (13) isolates as a group were more aggressive and caused defoliation, whereas VCG2A (5) and VCG4B (1) isolates induced milder symptoms. Within a VCG group, virulence varied among isolates infecting the same olive cultivar and this virulence was also related to the differential susceptibility of the cultivars ('Manzanilla', 'Ayvalik' and 'Gemlik') tested. Molecular pathotyping allowed the identification of D (VCG1A) and ND (VCG2A/4B) pathotypes, which correlated with results from pathogenicity tests. Remarkably, the V. dahliae VCG1A/D pathotype population infecting olive in Turkey was molecularly different from that one previously identified in Spain. © KNPV 2010.

Toker C.,Olive Research Institute | Yavuz N.,Olive Research Institute
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2015

In this study, the Ayvalik olive variety, an important and widely grown olive variety in Turkey, was chosen. A month prior to blooming and 2 months prior to harvesting in 2011 and 2012, three different concentrations of boron (100, 150 and 250 ppm) were applied to the olive leaves with or without boron deficiencies. After the application, quality criteria, fatty acid composition, total phenol contents and major volatile compounds of olive oil that was obtained from the harvested olives were investigated. Boron application to the olive trees with boron deficiencies has improved both the amount and the olive oil quality. Experimental results show the significance of boron for olive farming. Application of boron in 150 ppm led to a better olive oil quality by improving fatty acid composition [oleic acid (76.03 %), linoleic acid (9.68 %), linolenic acid (0.56 %), monounsaturated fatty acid (77.24 %)], total phenol content (422.94 ppm) and major volatile compounds [E-2-hexenal (43.12 ppm), hexanal (3.02 ppm), Z-3-hexenol (1.13 ppm)] in both harvest seasons (2011-2012) and in both olive orchards with or without boron deficiencies. © 2015 AOCS.

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