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Uppsala, Sweden

Thorsen S.B.,Copenhagen University | Christensen S.L.T.,Copenhagen University | Wurtz S.T.,Copenhagen University | Lundberg M.,Olink Bioscience | And 9 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: Worldwide more than one million women are annually diagnosed with breast cancer. A considerable fraction of these women receive systemic adjuvant therapy; however, some are cured by primary surgery and radiotherapy alone. Prognostic biomarkers guide stratification of patients into different risk groups and hence improve management of breast cancer patients. Plasma levels of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its natural inhibitor Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) have previously been associated with poor patient outcome and resistance to certain forms of chemotherapy. To pursue additional prognostic information from MMP-9 and TIMP-1, the level of the MMP-9 and TIMP-1 complex (MMP-9:TIMP-1) was investigated in plasma from breast cancer patients.Methods: Detection of protein:protein complexes in plasma was performed using a commercially available ELISA kit and, for the first time, the highly sensitive in-solution proximity ligation assay (PLA). We screened plasma from 465 patients with primary breast cancer for prognostic value of the MMP-9:TIMP-1 complex. Both assays were validated and applied for quantification of MMP-9:TIMP-1 concentration. In this retrospective study, we analyzed the association between the concentration of the MMP-9:TIMP-1 complex and clinicopathological data and disease free survival (DFS) in univariate and multivariate survival analyses.Results: Following successful validation both assays were applied for MMP-9:TIMP-1 measurements. Of the clinicopathological parameters, only menopausal status demonstrated significant association with the MMP-9:TIMP-1 complex; P = 0.03 and P = 0.028 for the ELISA and PLA measurements, respectively. We found no correlation between the MMP-9:TIMP-1 protein complex and DFS neither in univariate nor in multivariate survival analyses.Conclusions: Despite earlier reports linking MMP-9 and TIMP-1 with prognosis in breast cancer patients, we here demonstrate that plasma levels of the MMP-9:TIMP-1 protein complex hold no prognostic information in primary breast cancer as a stand-alone marker. We demonstrate that the highly sensitive in-solution PLA can be employed for measurements of protein:protein complexes in plasma. © 2013 Thorsen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Trifilieff P.,Columbia University | Trifilieff P.,New York State Psychiatric Institute | Trifilieff P.,Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene | Rives M.-L.,Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene | And 13 more authors.
BioTechniques | Year: 2011

The existence of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) dimers and/or oligomers has been demonstrated in heterologous systems using a variety of biochemical and biophysical assays. While these interactions are the subject of intense research because of their potential role in modulating signaling and altering pharmacology, evidence for the existence of receptor interactions in vivo is still elusive because of a lack of appropriate methods to detect them. Here, we adapted and optimized a proximity ligation assay (PLA) for the detection in brain slices of molecular proximity of two antigens located on either the same or two different GPCRs. Using this approach, we were able to confirm the existence of dopamine D2 and adenosine A2A receptor complexes in the striatum of mice ex vivo. Source


Thorsen S.B.,Copenhagen University | Lundberg M.,Olink Bioscience | Villablanca A.,Olink Bioscience | Christensen S.L.T.,Copenhagen University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Translational Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Although the potential of biomarkers to aid in early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is recognized and numerous biomarker candidates have been reported in the literature, to date only few molecular markers have been approved for daily clinical use.Methods: In order to improve the translation of biomarkers from the bench to clinical practice we initiated a biomarker study focusing on a novel technique, the proximity extension assay, with multiplexing capability and the possible additive effect obtained from biomarker panels. We performed a screening of 74 different biomarkers in plasma derived from a case-control sample set consisting of symptomatic individuals representing CRC patients, patients with adenoma, patients with non-neoplastic large bowel diseases and healthy individuals.Results: After statistical evaluation we found 12 significant indicators of CRC and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Transferrin Receptor-1 (TFRC), Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), Osteopontin (OPN/SPP1) and cancer antigen 242 (CA242) showed additive effect. This biomarker panel identified CRC patients with a sensitivity of 56% at 90% specificity and thus the performance is sufficiently high to further investigate this combination of five proteins as serological biomarkers for detection of CRC. Furthermore, when applying the indicators to identify early-stage CRC a combination of CEA, TFRC and CA242 resulted in a ROC curve with an area under the curve of 0.861.Conclusions: Five plasma protein biomarkers were found to be potential CRC discriminators and three of these were additionally found to be discriminators of early-stage CRC. These explorative data in symptomatic individuals demonstrates the feasibility of the multiplex proximity extension assay for screening of potential serological protein biomarkers and warrants independent analyses in a larger sample cohort, including asymptomatic individuals, to further validate the performances of our CRC biomarker panel. © 2013 Thorsen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Assarsson E.,Olink Bioscience | Lundberg M.,Olink Bioscience | Holmquist G.,Olink Bioscience | Bjorkesten J.,Olink Bioscience | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Medical research is developing an ever greater need for comprehensive high-quality data generation to realize the promises of personalized health care based on molecular biomarkers. The nucleic acid proximity-based methods proximity ligation and proximity extension assays have, with their dual reporters, shown potential to relieve the shortcomings of antibodies and their inherent cross-reactivity in multiplex protein quantification applications. The aim of the present study was to develop a robust 96-plex immunoassay based on the proximity extension assay (PEA) for improved high throughput detection of protein biomarkers. This was enabled by: (1) a modified design leading to a reduced number of pipetting steps compared to the existing PEA protocol, as well as improved intra-assay precision; (2) a new enzymatic system that uses a hyper-thermostabile enzyme, Pwo, for uniting the two probes allowing for room temperature addition of all reagents and improved the sensitivity; (3) introduction of an inter-plate control and a new normalization procedure leading to improved inter-assay precision (reproducibility). The multiplex proximity extension assay was found to perform well in complex samples, such as serum and plasma, and also in xenografted mice and resuspended dried blood spots, consuming only 1 μL sample per test. All-in-all, the development of the current multiplex technique is a step toward robust high throughput protein marker discovery and research. © 2014 Assarsson et al. Source


Zieba A.,Uppsala University | Wahlby C.,Uppsala University | Wahlby C.,The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard | Hjelm F.,Olink Bioscience | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: The in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) allows a protein or protein complex to be represented as an amplifiable DNA molecule. Recognition is mediated by proximity probes consisting of antibodies coupled with oligonucleotides. Upon dual binding of the proximity probes, the oligonucleotides direct the formation of a circular DNA molecule, which is then amplified by rolling-circle replication. The localized concatemeric product is then detected with fluorescent probes. The in situ PLA enables localized detection of individual native proteins or interacting protein pairs in fixed cells or tissue sections, thus providing an important tool for basic and clinical research. METHODS: We used horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated oligonucleotides to couple in situ PLA with enzymatic visualization of the localized detection event. RESULTS: We demonstrate the detection of protein complexes, both in cells and in tissue sections, and show that we can quantify the complexes with imageanalysis software specially developed for recognizing HRP signals in bright-field microscopy images. We show that fluorescence and HRP signals produce equivalent results, both in cultured cells and in tissue samples. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of in situ PLA with bright-field detection and automated image analysis allows the signals present to be counted in an automated fashion and thus provides a sensitive and specific method for quantification of proteins and protein complexes with bright-field microscopy. With this approach, in situ PLA can be used without the requirement for expensive fluorescence microscopes, thereby avoiding problems with nonspecific fluorescence while maintaining compatibility with conventional histologic staining. © 2009 American Association for Clinical Chemistry. Source

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