Olink Bioscience

Uppsala, Sweden

Olink Bioscience

Uppsala, Sweden
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Trifilieff P.,Columbia University | Trifilieff P.,New York State Psychiatric Institute | Trifilieff P.,Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene | Rives M.-L.,Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene | And 13 more authors.
BioTechniques | Year: 2011

The existence of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) dimers and/or oligomers has been demonstrated in heterologous systems using a variety of biochemical and biophysical assays. While these interactions are the subject of intense research because of their potential role in modulating signaling and altering pharmacology, evidence for the existence of receptor interactions in vivo is still elusive because of a lack of appropriate methods to detect them. Here, we adapted and optimized a proximity ligation assay (PLA) for the detection in brain slices of molecular proximity of two antigens located on either the same or two different GPCRs. Using this approach, we were able to confirm the existence of dopamine D2 and adenosine A2A receptor complexes in the striatum of mice ex vivo.


Ke R.,University of Stockholm | Ke R.,Uppsala University | Nong R.Y.,Uppsala University | Fredriksson S.,Olink Bioscience | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Proximity ligation assay (PLA) has been proven to be a robust protein detection method. The technique is characterized by high sensitivity and specificity, but the assay precision is probably limited by the PCR readout. To investigate this potential limitation and to improve precision, we developed a digital proximity ligation assay for protein measurement in fluids based on amplified single molecule detection. The assay showed significant improvements in precision, and thereby also detection sensitivity, over the conventional real-time PCR readout. © 2013 Ke et al.


Lundberg M.,Olink Bioscience | Thorsen S.B.,Copenhagen University | Assarsson E.,Olink Bioscience | Villablanca A.,Olink Bioscience | And 17 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2011

A high throughput protein biomarker discovery tool has been developed based on multiplexed proximity ligation assays in a homogeneous format in the sense of no washing steps. The platform consists of four 24-plex panels profiling 74 putative biomarkers with sub-pM sensitivity each consuming only 1 μl of human plasma sample. The system uses either matched monoclonal antibody pairs or the more readily available single batches of affinity purified polyclonal antibodies to generate the target specific reagents by covalently linking with unique nucleic acid sequences. These paired sequences are united by DNA ligation upon simultaneous target binding forming a PCR amplicon. Multiplex proximity ligation assays thereby converts multiple target analytes into real-time PCR amplicons that are individually quantified using microfluidic high capacity qPCR in nano liter volumes. The assay shows excellent specificity, even in multiplex, by its dual recognition feature, its proximity requirement, and most importantly by using unique sequence specific reporter fragments on both antibodybased probes. To illustrate the potential of this protein detection technology, a pilot biomarker research project was performed using biobanked plasma samples for the detection of colorectal cancer using a multivariate signature. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Zieba A.,Uppsala University | Grannas K.,Uppsala University | Soderberg O.,Uppsala University | Gullberg M.,Olink Bioscience | And 2 more authors.
New Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The heterogeneous nature of cancer results in highly variable therapeutic responses even among patients with identical stages and grades of a malignancy. The move towards personalised medicine in cancer therapy has therefore been motivated by a need to customise therapy according to molecular features of individual tumours. Companion diagnostics serves to support early drug development, it can provide surrogate markers in clinical trials, and also guide selection of individual therapies and monitoring of responses in routine clinical care. The era of companion diagnostics can be said to have begun with the introduction of the HercepTest - a first-of-a-kind diagnostic tool developed by DakoCytomation in 1998 to select patients for therapy with the anticancer drug Herceptin (trastuzumab). Herceptin and the paired test proved that companion diagnostics can help guide patient-tailored therapies. We will discuss herein technologies to analyse companion diagnostics markers at the level of DNA, RNA or protein, focusing on a series of methods developed in our laboratory that can facilitate drug development and help stratify patients for therapy. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Zieba A.,Uppsala University | Wahlby C.,Uppsala University | Wahlby C.,The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard | Hjelm F.,Olink Bioscience | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: The in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) allows a protein or protein complex to be represented as an amplifiable DNA molecule. Recognition is mediated by proximity probes consisting of antibodies coupled with oligonucleotides. Upon dual binding of the proximity probes, the oligonucleotides direct the formation of a circular DNA molecule, which is then amplified by rolling-circle replication. The localized concatemeric product is then detected with fluorescent probes. The in situ PLA enables localized detection of individual native proteins or interacting protein pairs in fixed cells or tissue sections, thus providing an important tool for basic and clinical research. METHODS: We used horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated oligonucleotides to couple in situ PLA with enzymatic visualization of the localized detection event. RESULTS: We demonstrate the detection of protein complexes, both in cells and in tissue sections, and show that we can quantify the complexes with imageanalysis software specially developed for recognizing HRP signals in bright-field microscopy images. We show that fluorescence and HRP signals produce equivalent results, both in cultured cells and in tissue samples. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of in situ PLA with bright-field detection and automated image analysis allows the signals present to be counted in an automated fashion and thus provides a sensitive and specific method for quantification of proteins and protein complexes with bright-field microscopy. With this approach, in situ PLA can be used without the requirement for expensive fluorescence microscopes, thereby avoiding problems with nonspecific fluorescence while maintaining compatibility with conventional histologic staining. © 2009 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.


Lundberg M.,Olink Bioscience | Eriksson A.,Olink Bioscience | Tran B.,Olink Bioscience | Assarsson E.,Olink Bioscience | Fredriksson S.,Olink Bioscience
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2011

Convenient and well-performing protein detection methods for a wide range of targets are in great demand for biomedical research and future diagnostics. Assays without the need for washing steps while still unaffected when analyzing complex biological samples are difficult to develop. Herein, we report a well-characterized nucleic acid proximitybased assay using antibodies, called Proximity Extension Assay (PEA), showing good performance in plasma samples. Target-specific antibody pairs are linked to DNA strands that upon simultaneous binding to the target analyte create a real-time PCR amplicon in a proximity-dependent manner enabled by the action of a DNA polymerase. 30Exonucleasecapable polymerases were found to be clearly superior in sensitivity over non-30exonuclease ones. A PEA was set up for IL-8 and GDNF in a user-friendly, homogenous assay displaying femtomolar detection sensitivity, good recovery in human plasma, high specificity and up to 5-log dynamic range in 1 κL samples. Furthermore, we have illustrated the use of a macro-molecular crowding matrix in combination with this homogeneous assay to drive target binding for low-affinity antibodies, thereby improving the sensitivity and increasing affinity reagent availability by lowering assay development dependency on high-affinity antibodies. Assay performance was also confirmed for a multiplex version of PEA. © 2011 The Author(s).


Assarsson E.,Olink Bioscience | Lundberg M.,Olink Bioscience | Holmquist G.,Olink Bioscience | Bjorkesten J.,Olink Bioscience | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Medical research is developing an ever greater need for comprehensive high-quality data generation to realize the promises of personalized health care based on molecular biomarkers. The nucleic acid proximity-based methods proximity ligation and proximity extension assays have, with their dual reporters, shown potential to relieve the shortcomings of antibodies and their inherent cross-reactivity in multiplex protein quantification applications. The aim of the present study was to develop a robust 96-plex immunoassay based on the proximity extension assay (PEA) for improved high throughput detection of protein biomarkers. This was enabled by: (1) a modified design leading to a reduced number of pipetting steps compared to the existing PEA protocol, as well as improved intra-assay precision; (2) a new enzymatic system that uses a hyper-thermostabile enzyme, Pwo, for uniting the two probes allowing for room temperature addition of all reagents and improved the sensitivity; (3) introduction of an inter-plate control and a new normalization procedure leading to improved inter-assay precision (reproducibility). The multiplex proximity extension assay was found to perform well in complex samples, such as serum and plasma, and also in xenografted mice and resuspended dried blood spots, consuming only 1 μL sample per test. All-in-all, the development of the current multiplex technique is a step toward robust high throughput protein marker discovery and research. © 2014 Assarsson et al.


Thorsen S.B.,Copenhagen University | Christensen S.L.T.,Copenhagen University | Wurtz S.T.,Copenhagen University | Lundberg M.,Olink Bioscience | And 9 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: Worldwide more than one million women are annually diagnosed with breast cancer. A considerable fraction of these women receive systemic adjuvant therapy; however, some are cured by primary surgery and radiotherapy alone. Prognostic biomarkers guide stratification of patients into different risk groups and hence improve management of breast cancer patients. Plasma levels of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its natural inhibitor Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) have previously been associated with poor patient outcome and resistance to certain forms of chemotherapy. To pursue additional prognostic information from MMP-9 and TIMP-1, the level of the MMP-9 and TIMP-1 complex (MMP-9:TIMP-1) was investigated in plasma from breast cancer patients.Methods: Detection of protein:protein complexes in plasma was performed using a commercially available ELISA kit and, for the first time, the highly sensitive in-solution proximity ligation assay (PLA). We screened plasma from 465 patients with primary breast cancer for prognostic value of the MMP-9:TIMP-1 complex. Both assays were validated and applied for quantification of MMP-9:TIMP-1 concentration. In this retrospective study, we analyzed the association between the concentration of the MMP-9:TIMP-1 complex and clinicopathological data and disease free survival (DFS) in univariate and multivariate survival analyses.Results: Following successful validation both assays were applied for MMP-9:TIMP-1 measurements. Of the clinicopathological parameters, only menopausal status demonstrated significant association with the MMP-9:TIMP-1 complex; P = 0.03 and P = 0.028 for the ELISA and PLA measurements, respectively. We found no correlation between the MMP-9:TIMP-1 protein complex and DFS neither in univariate nor in multivariate survival analyses.Conclusions: Despite earlier reports linking MMP-9 and TIMP-1 with prognosis in breast cancer patients, we here demonstrate that plasma levels of the MMP-9:TIMP-1 protein complex hold no prognostic information in primary breast cancer as a stand-alone marker. We demonstrate that the highly sensitive in-solution PLA can be employed for measurements of protein:protein complexes in plasma. © 2013 Thorsen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Uppsala University and Olink Bioscience
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell reports | Year: 2016

Significant advances have been made in methods to analyze genomes and transcriptomes of single cells, but to fully define cell states, proteins must also be accessed as central actors defining a cells phenotype. Methods currently used to analyze endogenous protein expression in single cells are limited in specificity, throughput, or multiplex capability. Here, we present an approach to simultaneously and specifically interrogate large sets of protein and RNA targets in lysates from individual cells, enabling investigations of cell functions and responses. We applied our method to investigate the effects of BMP4, an experimental therapeutic agent, on early-passage glioblastoma cell cultures. We uncovered significant heterogeneity in responses to treatment at levels of RNA and protein, with a subset of cells reacting in a distinct manner to BMP4. Moreover, we found overall poor correlation between protein and RNA at the level of single cells, with proteins more accurately defining responses to treatment.


PubMed | Olink Bioscience and Copenhagen University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Medical research is developing an ever greater need for comprehensive high-quality data generation to realize the promises of personalized health care based on molecular biomarkers. The nucleic acid proximity-based methods proximity ligation and proximity extension assays have, with their dual reporters, shown potential to relieve the shortcomings of antibodies and their inherent cross-reactivity in multiplex protein quantification applications. The aim of the present study was to develop a robust 96-plex immunoassay based on the proximity extension assay (PEA) for improved high throughput detection of protein biomarkers. This was enabled by: (1) a modified design leading to a reduced number of pipetting steps compared to the existing PEA protocol, as well as improved intra-assay precision; (2) a new enzymatic system that uses a hyper-thermostabile enzyme, Pwo, for uniting the two probes allowing for room temperature addition of all reagents and improved the sensitivity; (3) introduction of an inter-plate control and a new normalization procedure leading to improved inter-assay precision (reproducibility). The multiplex proximity extension assay was found to perform well in complex samples, such as serum and plasma, and also in xenografted mice and resuspended dried blood spots, consuming only 1 L sample per test. All-in-all, the development of the current multiplex technique is a step toward robust high throughput protein marker discovery and research.

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