Norfolk, VA, United States
Norfolk, VA, United States

Old Dominion University is a public research university in Norfolk, Virginia, United States. It was established in 1930 as the Norfolk Division of the College of William & Mary. ODU awarded its first bachelor's degrees in 1956, became Old Dominion College in 1962, and attained university status in 1969. ODU offers a full range of degree programs and is one of the nation's largest providers of online distance learning courses. Old Dominion University derives its name from one of Virginia's state nicknames, "The Old Dominion", given to the state by King Charles II of England for remaining loyal to the crown during the English Civil War. Wikipedia.

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Old Dominion University | Date: 2015-03-24

Catheter devices can include an elongate housing extending along a major axis, the elongate housing comprising a first end an opening. The catheter devices can also include an electrode assembly disposed in the elongate housing and including deformable electrodes with respective electrode distal ends, where the electrode distal ends each consist of respective member portions and respective tip portions. The electrode assembly is slidably movable within the housing along the major axis to allow the electrode distal end portions to transition between a first retracted position and a second extended position. The catheter device is configured such that an average distance between the tip portions in the second position is configured to be greater than an average distance between the tip portions in the first position the tip portions are positioned substantially in a same plane when the electrode assembly is in the second position.

A method for efficient plasma etching of surfaces inside three-dimensional structures can include positioning an inner electrode within the chamber cavity; evacuating the chamber cavity; adding a first inert gas to the chamber cavity; regulating the pressure in the chamber; generating a plasma sheath along the inner wall of the chamber cavity; adjusting a positive D.C. bias on the inner electrode to establish an effective plasma sheath voltage; adding a first electronegative gas to the chamber cavity; optionally readjusting the positive D.C. bias on the inner electrode reestablish the effective plasma sheath voltage at the chamber cavity; etching the inner wall of the chamber cavity; and polishing the inner wall to a desired surface roughness.

Gurevich A.,Old Dominion University
Reports on Progress in Physics | Year: 2011

An overview of the behavior of Fe-based superconductors (FBSs) in magnetic fields is given with the emphasis on the materials features important for pinning of vortices, critical current densities, melting of the vortex structures and the upper critical fields. We also discuss how the multiband electronic structure of FBSs can result in extremely high upper critical fields tunable by doping or in the Fulde-Ferrel-Larkin-Ovchinnikov inhomogeneous state at high fields and low temperatures. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Darby D.A.,Old Dominion University
Nature Geoscience | Year: 2014

Sea ice in the Arctic Ocean is a key component of the modern climate system, but less is known about the evolution of Arctic sea ice throughout Earth's history, particularly in warmer climate states. Following early Palaeogene greenhouse conditions, seasonal sea ice in the Arctic developed during a period of relative cooling in the middle Eocene, some 47.5 million years ago. However, perennial sea ice has only been documented as recently as 18 million years ago. Here I document the provenance of iron grains in marine sediments from the central Arctic Ocean, and show that during several intervals, beginning about 44 million years ago, they were carried from distal Arctic shelf sources. The grains are too coarse to have been delivered by ocean currents or aeolian transport, and therefore must have been rafted by sea ice. Because grains entrained from the shelf sources would need to drift for more than one year to reach the depositional site, I conclude that sea ice must have persisted throughout the year. However, the presence of grains from these distal sources only occur in intervals of less than 100,000 years in the oldest part of the records, suggesting that perennial sea ice existed only ephemerally until 36.7 million years ago. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ADVANCED TECH EDUCATION PROG | Award Amount: 899.45K | Year: 2016

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) workforce studies recently completed by various organizations show that the utilization of UAS technology in the workplace is exploding in the domestic and international markets. UAS technology has the potential to impact nearly every sector of the economy and is revolutionizing manufacturing, emergency management, intelligence, agriculture, civil engineering, utility systems monitoring and package delivery. Because they have the ability to complete traditionally hazardous jobs more safely and difficult jobs more easily, UAS and related technologies are changing the way these tasks are performed. UAS have a cross-cutting impact on nearly every sector of the economy and every educational discipline. To take advantage of the opportunities provided by this emerging sector, the Geospatial Technician Education-Unmanned Aircraft Systems (GeoTEd-UAS) project, a three-year effort that focuses on geospatial technologies, will develop and implement academic courses and pathways to prepare Unmanned Aircraft Systems Operations Technicians (UASOT) to succeed in the emerging fields of geospatial data acquisition, analysis and exploitation.

The project will also provide faculty professional development and mentoring, curriculum development, and precollege activities to increase the UAS workforce pipeline. GeoTEd-UAS will build college and faculty capacity at two partnering community colleges and support these faculty to develop pathways for UASOT training. Activities include workforce needs and skills analysis, compilation of the duties and responsibilities of a UASOT, convening of leadership and faculty development workshops, faculty mentoring, curriculum development and student recruitment. The partnering community colleges represent rural and urban locations allowing the project to broaden the participation of many underrepresented groups. Project materials and resources will be shared nationally through the GeoTech Center and the GeoTEd website ( GeoTEd-UAS project partners include Thomas Nelson Community College, Mountain Empire Community College, the Virginia Community College System, Virginia Tech, and the Virginia Space Grant Consortium (VSGC). The project will be led and administered by the VSGC. The innovative UASOT courses and pathways being developed through the GeoTEd-UAS project will advance the field significantly and serve as national models.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: AON IMPLEMENTATION | Award Amount: 788.93K | Year: 2016

The WARM buoy collects measurements of light, temperature, salinity and phytoplankton abundance under the Arctic sea ice. The Arctic ice pack has suffered continued thinning and reduction in seasonal extent, resulting in changes to the amount of sunlight penetrating through the ice and into the ocean beneath, having consequences for the physical and biological environment. Sunlight absorbed by the ocean under the ice causes warming, which can lead to accelerated ice melt resulting in even more sunlight reaching the ocean. In addition, warmer water also affects living organisms, influencing the ability of Arctic adapted species to survive, and possibly promoting the northward advancement of sub-Arctic species. Thinner ice also increases light available for photosynthesis, affecting the timing of phytoplankton blooms. If phytoplankton growth occurs early in the season then zooplankton, the organisms that feed on them can miss the bloom with consequences for the entire food web of the Arctic. This project aims to provide observations to help determine how the under-ice environment is changing by using autonomous buoys which overcome the limitations of ship-based observations. The buoys have proven to be very robust and can survive for approximately one year, providing hourly observations which will be available in near-real time to the research community and interested public parties. The buoys will be deployed in early spring in the western Beaufort Sea, with anticipated drift west over the Chukchi Shelf.
This project will continue the WARM buoy initiative by improving the existing design to include increased vertical resolution of temperature and light measurements, the addition of salinity measurement to enable water mass identification, and a second fluorometer to identify sinking phytoplankton biomass. The data collected will provide a time series of important physical and biogeochemical properties over a complete seasonal cycle. It will enable us to address questions related to the effects of a thinner and more open ice pack on the absorption of solar radiation, ocean heating, the phenology of pelagic primary production, and carbon cycling. The buoys have proven to be very robust and can survive for approximately one year, providing hourly observations which will be available in near real time to the research community and interested public parties. The buoys will be deployed in early spring in the western Beaufort Sea, with anticipated drift west over the Chukchi Shelf. The Arctic ice pack acts as a barrier controlling the availability of UV and visible light to the water column. Continued thinning and reduction of seasonal Arctic ice has resulted in alterations in the timing and magnitude of solar radiation penetrating the upper Arctic Ocean. Amplification of solar radiation absorption into the ocean acts to warm and stratify the surface layer, which can induce further ice retreat and delay fall freeze-up. Resulting thermal stratification affects the ecosystem by limiting vertical replenishment of nutrients with a direct consequence on the magnitude of primary production. A warmer water column can also play a fundamental role in setting thresholds for the abundance and distribution of plankton communities, affecting trophic efficiency and promoting the northward advancement of sub-Arctic species. Thinner ice increases the light available for photosynthesis and net primary production, affecting the timing of primary production. Small timing mis-match between phytoplankton blooms and zooplankton reproductive cycles can have consequences for the entire lipid-driven Arctic marine ecosystem. Changes in the duration of UV exposure through longer open water periods has the potential to increase photochemical remineralization of terrestrial and marine organic matter and production of labile organic material that can be used by microbes. Determining the impact of solar radiation changes on warming, primary production, and photochemistry are all critical in assessing and predicting the effects of climate change on the marine carbon cycle. The measurement of these variables within and beneath the seasonal ice pack is challenging due to the limitations of ship based observations, but this can be resolved by using the autonomous WARM buoys deployed within the ice and designed to survive ice melt.

Gurevich A.,Old Dominion University
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics | Year: 2014

Since the discovery of high-Tc cuprates, the quest for new superconductors has shifted toward more anisotropic, strongly correlated materials with lower carrier densities and competing magnetic and charge-density wave orders. Although these materials' features enhance superconducting correlations, they also result in serious problems for applications at liquid nitrogen (and higher) temperatures and strong magnetic fields so that such conventional characteristics as the critical temperature Tc and the upper critical field Hc2 are no longer the main parameters of merit. This happens because of strong fluctuations of the order parameter, thermally activated hopping of pinned vortices, and electromagnetic granularity, as has been established after extensive investigations of cuprates and Fe-based superconductors (FBSs). In this paper, I give an overview of those mechanisms crucial for power and magnet applications and discuss the materials' restrictions that must be satisfied to make superconductors useful at high temperatures and magnetic fields. These restrictions become more and more essential at higher temperatures and magnetic fields, particularly for the yet-to-be-discovered superconductors operating at room temperatures. In this case, the performance of superconductors is limited by destructive fluctuations of the order parameter so that higher superfluid density and weaker electronic anisotropy, which reduce these fluctuations, can become far more important than higher Tc. © Copyright 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY | Award Amount: 827.67K | Year: 2016

This project will develop a quantitative understanding of the factors controlling carbon cycling in seagrass meadows that will improve our ability to quantify their potential as blue (ocean) carbon sinks and predict their future response to climate change, including sea level rise, ocean warming and ocean acidification. The research will advance a new generation of bio-optical-geochemical models and tools (ECHOES) that have the potential to be transform our ability to measure and predict carbon dynamics in shallow water systems. The award will also be used to train the next generation of young scientists by supporting the research of an early career scientist, two Ph.D. students, at least 2 undergraduate students, and at least two interns from the Ocean Lakes High School (Va. Beach) Math & Science Academy, under the combined supervision of the PIs. All students will participate in experimental design, implementation and data analysis and will present the findings of their research at major international scientific meetings each year as well as publishing their results in top-ranked peer reviewed journals. PI Zimmerman maintains an ongoing outreach collaboration with the Virginia Aquarium & Marine Science Center to facilitate the development of educational interpretation and programming from this project that will be specifically targeted to the >700,000 Aquarium visitors annually. The physical setting of the Aquarium will be used as a forum to engage the visitors in dialogue about the broader issue of climate change with Aquarium staff and volunteers. Zimmerman is collaborating with the Virginia Aquarium to help design and implement additional educational programs, resources, and exhibits including the development a new Chesapeake Bay tank that will house living seagrasses. The results from this project will be incorporated into Virginia Aquariums year-long Mentoring Young Scientists program and as standards-based educational materials for use at the Aquarium in programs for schools, scouts and general audiences. At various times throughout project, the PIs and students will participate in the Virginia Aquariums Speaking of Science lecture series, which are free to general public to help connect our research with the local community.

The study will utilize cutting-edge methods for evaluating oxygen and carbon exchange (Eulerian and eddy covariance techniques) combined with biomass, sedimentary, and water column measurements to develop and test numerical models that can be scaled up to quantify the dynamics of carbon cycling and sequestration in seagrass meadows in temperate and tropical environments of the West Atlantic continental margin that encompass both siliciclastic and carbonate sediments. The comparative analysis across latitudinal and geochemical gradients will address the relative contributions of different species and geochemical processes to better constrain the role of seagrass carbon sequestration to global biogeochemical cycles. Specifically the research will quantify: (i) the relationship between C stocks and standing biomass for different species with different life histories and structural complexity, (ii) the influence of above- and below-ground metabolism on carbon exchange, and (iii) the influence of sediment type (siliciclastic vs. carbonate) on Blue Carbon storage. Seagrass biomass, growth rates, carbon content and isotope composition (above- and below-ground), organic carbon deposition and export will be measured. Sedimentation rates and isotopic composition of PIC, POC, and iron sulfide precipitates, as well as porewater concentrations of dissolved sulfide, CO2, alkalinity and salinity will be determined in order to develop a bio-optical-geochemical model that will predict the impact of seagrass metabolism on sediment geochemical processes that control carbon cycling in shallow waters. Model predictions will be validated against direct measurements of DIC and O2 exchange in seagrass meadows, enabling the investigators to scale-up the density-dependent processes to predict the impacts of seagrass distribution and density on carbon cycling and sequestration across the submarine landscape.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: RSCH EXPER FOR UNDERGRAD SITES | Award Amount: 360.00K | Year: 2017

This award establishes a new Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Site at Old Dominion University. The REU Site is led by faculty from the Center for Cybersecurity Education and Research (CCSER) at the university. CCSER includes faculty from a large number of departments and colleges across the university that can provide a range of multidisciplinary research projects that focus on problems that are important and attractive to undergraduates. The REU Site will host 10 students from across the nation to conduct research during the summer with faculty mentors. The students will live in the Cybersecurity Living and Learning Community associated with CCSER. The project plans to recruit a diverse cohort of undergraduate students each summer, including students from under-represented minorities, women, and veterans. In addition to their research activities, the students will participate in other professional development activities that will prepare them for entering the computing workforce and for possible futures as researchers.

The REU site is led by faculty mentors from the Center for Cybersecurity Education and Research. The faculty of the Center have significant research expertise and offer state-of-the-art facilities that should provide a compelling research experience to undergraduates. This REU site offers unique multidisciplinary learning and research opportunities for undergraduate students in the inherently multidisciplinary cybersecurity discipline. Students will explore topics across multiple disciplines including networks, machine learning, decision science, sociology, criminal justice, and philosophy. Students will be advised by a multidisciplinary mentoring committee with faculty from at least 3 different areas. This approach should promote multidisciplinary collaborations among students and increase their interest toward careers in the important field of cybersecurity.

The elemental composition of natural waters, sediments, airborne dust, rainwater and marine microbiota contains information that is essential to an understanding the workings of Earth system, and its past and future trajectories, which are of fundamental importance to human society. Moreover, the ability to perform and interpret such chemical analyses is an essential part of the education and training of many scientific professionals within the field of ocean and earth sciences. Among the most commonly used methods for such elemental analyses is plasma source mass spectrometry, whereby a new generation of sample introduction systems coupled to a high-resolution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) allows routine elemental determinations in a wide variety of natural materials, over large ranges in elemental concentrations.

This Major Research Instrumentation award will support the acquisition of a new, state-of-the-art HR-ICP-MS and dedicated sample introduction system, which will be housed in Old Dominion Universitys Department of Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (OEAS). This equipment represents an essential replacement and upgrade of the 16-year-old system now in place, and is critically required to meet the current and future research demands of departmental faculty and graduate researchers, as well as provide essential training and education to OEAS postdoctoral researchers, graduate students and undergraduate majors. The new analytical equipment will be maintained and operated by a dedicated research specialist who is highly experienced in HR-ICP-MS analysis, and who will receive additional specific training in the use and maintenance of the new instrument and sample introduction system.

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