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Exmouth, United Kingdom

Wheeler M.J.,Old Dairy
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

In the clinical laboratory, the reproductive hormones are probably the second most commonly measured hormones after the thyroid hormones. More than 300 laboratories participate in the UK National External Quality Control Scheme. In addition, investigations into reproduction and fertility in humans and animals remain a major area of research. Illustrative methods are described for the three reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin). Radioimmunoassay, immunoradiometric, and enzyme assays are described to give a wide choice of assay formats. There are many commercial assays available and illustrative ones are described. Possible interferences are discussed and procedures for investigating their presence and removal are given. © 2013 Springer New York. Source


Field H.P.,St Jamess Hospital | Wheeler M.J.,Old Dairy
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

A number of androgens are measured for clinical purposes. Most laboratories will run a testosterone assay but the requirement for other androgens may be too small for a laboratory to set up their own assay. In these cases samples would be sent to a specialized laboratory. In the routine laboratory testosterone is analyzed on automated systems but these lack the sensitivity to accurately measure the hormone in children and normal women. Many laboratories analyzed such samples by radioimmunoassay, but tandem mass spectrometry is now replacing these assays. This chapter provides simple methods for measuring the androgens in serum and saliva by radioimmunoassay and tandem mass spectrometry. © 2013 Springer New York. Source


Wheeler M.J.,Old Dairy
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

No other development has had such a major impact on the measurement of hormones as immunoassay. Reagents and assay kits can now be bought commercially but not for the more esoteric or new hormones. This chapter explains the basics of the immunoassay reaction and gives simple methods for immunoassays and immunometric assays and for the production of reagents for both antigenic and hapten hormones. Alternative methods are given for the preparation of labeled hormones as well as several possible separation procedures. The methods described here have been previously used in a wide range of assays and have stood the test of time. They will allow the production of usable immunoassays in a relatively short period of time. © 2013 Springer New York. Source


Wheeler M.J.,Old Dairy
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) has long been associated with sexual differentiation in the fetus where in the male it suppresses the development of the female reproductive tracts. More recently it has been shown to be secreted in low concentrations by the granulosa cells of the adult and related to follicular development in the ovary. A number of laboratories are now measuring this hormone as part of IVF treatment and in the investigation of polycystic ovarian disease in particular. Early immunoassays for this hormone were not stable and currently laboratories are using the assay sold by Beckman Coulter, Inc., the AMH Gen II ELISA. This assay has been developed from two commercial assays purchased by Beckman and is reported to be precise and convenient. It is the assay described here. © 2013 Springer New York. Source


Wheeler M.J.,Old Dairy
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Huge changes have occurred in the measurement of hormones over the last 50 years or so. Methods have become simplified, sensitivity has increased manyfold, and automation has allowed the analysis of large number of specimens in a single day. The most significant steps in the history of hormone measurement were the development of radioimmunoassay and later the production of monoclonal antibodies. There has also been increased commercialization, the technique has been applied to an ever-increasing range of substances, and radioactive measurement has been replaced with colorimetric, fluorescent, and chemiluminescent end-points. However, all these changes have not been without their problems. Collaboration between laboratories has seen standardization of reagents and methods, the development of reference methods, and the setting up of external quality assurance schemes. All these have led to improved sensitivity, precision, and reliability. More recently tandem mass spectrometry has brought further improvements in the measurement of certain hormones. Although many hormones are now measured by automated systems there is still a place for manual assays whether developed in-house or by using a commercial kit. © 2013 Springer New York. Source

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