Phillips P.S.,University of Northampton |
Tudor T.,University of Northampton |
Bird H.,Old Academy |
Bates M.,University of Northampton
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2011
In 2007, in England, the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) published Waste Strategy 2007 for England. To help drive the required behaviour change for increased sustainable practice the Government in England signalled up in the Strategy the intention to launch a Zero Waste Places (ZWP) initiative to develop innovative and exemplary practice. By inviting places (including cities, towns and rural communities) to bid for ZWP status, the successful applicants were then expected to become exemplars of good environmental practice on all waste issues. The ZWP programme commenced in October 2008 with the selection of 6 distinct places based upon an application by a partnership containing a Local Authority or in one case a Regional Development Agency. The places ranged in size from the very small (one street of 201 properties) to a Region of England (5 million population). These 6 were chosen from an initial list of 12 applicants via a rigorous selection process against fixed criteria that were designed to support Zero Waste practice. The funding was £70,258 and the mean was £11,709. The overall assessment suggests that the Local Authorities and their project partners rose to the challenge of zero waste and in most cases met or even exceeded their objectives (meeting at least 80% of aims and planned actions) and achieved high value for money in terms of Government funded initiatives. Evaluation suggested that there is a requirement to link, in the future, ZWP initiatives with other recent developments such as Transition Towns, Eco-Town and Total Place developments within Local Authorities. A Certificated Standard for ZWP was developed and is perceived as being both useful and valuable and it is hoped that it will spur a large number of new ZWP applications. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Neill S.P.,Bangor University |
Lewis M.J.,Bangor University |
Hashemi M.R.,Bangor University |
Slater E.,British Oceanographic Data Center |
And 2 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2014
The waters surrounding the Orkney archipelago in the north of Scotland are one of the key regions in the world suitable for exploitation of both wave and tidal energy resources. Accordingly, Orkney waters are currently host to 1.08. GW of UK Crown Estate leased wave and tidal energy projects, with a further 0.5. GW leased in the southern part of the adjacent Pentland Firth. Although several wave resource models exist of the region, most of these models are commercial, and hence the results not publicly available, or have insufficient spatial/temporal resolution to accurately quantify the wave power resource of the region. In particular, no study has satisfactorily resolved the inter-annual and inter-seasonal variability of the wave resource around Orkney. Here, the SWAN wave model was run at high resolution on a high performance computing system, quantifying the Orkney wave power resource over a ten year period (2003-2012), a decade which witnessed considerable inter-annual variability in the wave climate. The results of the validated wave model demonstrate that there is considerable variability of the wave resource surrounding Orkney, with an extended winter (December-January-February-March, DJFM) mean wave power ranging from 10 to 25. kW/m over the decade of our study. Further, the results demonstrate that there is considerably less uncertainty (30%) in the high energy region to the west of Orkney during winter months, in contrast to much greater uncertainty (60%) in the lower energy region to the east of Orkney. The DJFM wave resource to the west of Orkney correlated well with the DJFM North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Although a longer simulated time period would be required to fully resolve inter-decadal variability, these preliminary results demonstrate that due to considerable inter-annual variability in the NAO, it is important to carefully consider the time period used to quantify the wave power resource of Orkney, or regions with similar exposure to the North Atlantic. Finally, our study reveals that there is significantly less variability in the practical wave power resource, since much of the variability in the theoretical resource is contained within relatively few extreme events, when a wave device enters survival mode. © 2014 The Authors.
Woolf D.K.,Heriot - Watt University |
Woolf D.K.,Old Academy
International Journal of Marine Energy | Year: 2013
The strength and timing of tidal stream energy in a region is affected both by external hydraulic factors (the driving potential for currents) and by the internal configuration of channels and reservoirs. If we consider a single tidal frequency and take a linear approximation, the dynamics and kinematics can be reduced to an analogous electrical circuit. The external factors can then always be represented by either a voltage source and series impedance (Thévenin circuit) or by a current source and a parallel impedance (Norton circuit). A simple, short channel between two major basins depends on inertia and friction and can be represented simply by a resistor and inductor. Longer channels or channels connected to harbours can be represented using additional circuitry and impedances, including capacitors. The analogy to "capacitance" is provided by wetted area and it is shown that an area of >100 km2 is sufficient to alter the strength and timing of the tidal stream for Gigawatt-scale resources. In particular, features in the currents of Pentland Firth can be explained by the capacitive properties of Scapa Flow. Options for extracting tidal energy can be explored by adding load resistors to the circuit. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harding S.F.,University of Edinburgh |
Bryden I.G.,University of Edinburgh |
Bryden I.G.,Old Academy
Renewable Energy | Year: 2012
The directionality of the tidal flow throughout the tidal cycle has important implications for tidal energy capture with respect to turbine performance, capacity factor, and structural loading. There has been a tendency to infer that energetic sites possess near bi-directional flows or that there are sufficient sites with near bi-directional flows such that more omni-directional flow tidal currents can be neglected. This technical note investigates the connection between directionality and the incident kinetic energy density of tidal currents in the Northern United Kingdom. It demonstrates a positive correlation between these flow parameters and quantifies this through the analysis of real tidal velocity data. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
French-Brooks J.,Old Academy
Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011
Justin French-Brooks outlines WRAP's work to quantify, understand and reduce food wastage in the UK, a pressing environmental challenge that demands multifaceted solutions. The arguments in favor of tackling food waste in the UK are compelling. Research by Waste and Resources Action Program (WRAP) has shown that people waste over 11 million tons of food and drink per year in the UK. The UK has committed itself to challenging carbon reduction targets. The Climate Change Act 2008 set legally binding emission reduction targets for 2020 and for 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The food industry will be looking to play its part in meeting these commitments. The recommendations of the report accompanying the 'Fruit and Vegetable Resource Maps' are comprehensive, suggesting a range of improvements, including: better supply chain communication, reviewing consumer specifications, and work to optimize packaging.