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Rabitsch W.,Environment Agency Austria | Graf W.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Huemer P.,Tiroler Landesmuseen Betriebsgesellschaft m.b.H. | Kahlen M.,Tiroler Landesmuseen Betriebsgesellschaft m.b.H. | And 6 more authors.
Basic and Applied Ecology | Year: 2016

Austria supports a considerable number of endemic invertebrate species, but a cross-taxon analysis is currently lacking. Based on a recent national inventory, we analysed distribution patterns, ecology and conservation biogeography of 361 endemic species and subspecies (beetles: 174 taxa; butterflies and moths: 34 taxa; caddisflies: 16 taxa; snails: 80 taxa; spiders and harvestmen: 57 taxa) within Austria. Endemic species were very unevenly distributed with highest numbers of endemic species found in the North-eastern Calcareous Alps followed by the Southern Alps and the easternmost Central Alps. The location of hot spots (=grid cells of c. 35 km2 size with highest endemic species numbers) varied substantially between taxonomic groups. The range size of endemic invertebrate taxa was skewed towards very narrow distributions - 222 taxa are restricted to <10 grid cells (total area c. 350 km2), of which 71 taxa were known from a single grid cell only. Between taxonomic groups we found substantial differences in elevation distribution. Whereas beetles and butterflies and moths were most species-rich at high elevations (1900-2000 m a.s.l.), caddisflies (1000-1200 m) and snails (400-500 m) were most species-rich at mid to low elevations. Endemics associated with different broad habitat types differed markedly in average range size, endemics of habitats with limited and patchy distribution (caves, springs) had the smallest ranges. The endemic taxa of the five groups showed substantial differences in their habitat association. We found a strong positive correlation of range size with elevation range, whereas the number of habitats colonized was only weakly associated with range size. Thus, different features of niche breadth differed in their correlation with endemic species range sizes. Finally, we found that the conservation status of Austrian endemics is poor since 54% of the endemic species are nationally red-listed. Thus, a dedicated conservation strategy is urgently needed to conserve the endemic fauna of Austria. © 2015 Gesellschaft für Ökologie.


Holzinger W.E.,Okoteam Institute for Animal Ecology and Landscape Planning | Schlosser L.,Okoteam Institute for Animal Ecology and Landscape Planning
ZooKeys | Year: 2013

The first overview on the Auchenorrhyncha fauna of peat bogs of the Austrian Bohemian Forest is presented. Seven oligotrophic peat bog sites were studied in 2011 by suction sampler ("G-Vac") and 93 Auchenorrhyncha species (with 7465 adult specimens) were recorded. Eleven species (about 18 % of the individuals) are tyrphobiontic or tyrphophilous. The relative species abundance plot is not very steep; the six most abundant species represent 50 % of the individuals. The most common species is Conomelus anceps (17 % of the individuals). Compared to the whole Austrian Auchenorrhyncha fauna, the fauna of peat bogs comprises distinctly more univoltine species and more species hibernating in nymphal stage. Densities of adult Auchenorrhyncha in peat bogs are low in spring (about 10-60 individuals per m2) and high in July, with up to 180 (±50) individuals per m2. Disturbed peat bogs have higher species numbers and higher Auchenorrhyncha densities in total, but lower numbers and densities in peat bog specialists. © W.E. Holzinger, L. Schlosser.


Komposch C.,OKOTEAM Institute for Animal Ecology and Landscape Planning
Arachnologische Mitteilungen | Year: 2011

A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri) and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa) nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus), beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps) and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps) and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps). Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa - 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria - is poor.


PubMed | Okoteam Institute for Animal Ecology and Landscape Planning
Type: | Journal: ZooKeys | Year: 2013

The first overview on the Auchenorrhyncha fauna of peat bogs of the Austrian Bohemian Forest is presented. Seven oligotrophic peat bog sites were studied in 2011 by suction sampler (G-Vac) and 93 Auchenorrhyncha species (with 7465 adult specimens) were recorded. Eleven species (about 18% of the individuals) are tyrphobiontic or tyrphophilous. The relative species abundance plot is not very steep; the six most abundant species represent 50% of the individuals. The most common species is Conomelus anceps (17% of the individuals). Compared to the whole Austrian Auchenorrhyncha fauna, the fauna of peat bogs comprises distinctly more univoltine species and more species hibernating in nymphal stage. Densities of adult Auchenorrhyncha in peat bogs are low in spring (about 10-60 individuals per m) and high in July, with up to 180 (50) individuals per m. Disturbed peat bogs have higher species numbers and higher Auchenorrhyncha densities in total, but lower numbers and densities in peat bog specialists.

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