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Oklahoma City, OK, United States

W. Stern A.,Oklahoma State University | Velguth K.E.,Oklahoma State University | D'Agostino J.,Oklahoma City Zoo
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2010

A 17-yr-old Western Hognose snake (Heterodon nasicus) presented with a prominent midcoelomic swelling. Surgical exploration revealed a large, multicystic, irregular, tan, and firm mass grossly effacing the splenopancreas. The mass was subsequently removed. Histologically, the mass was composed of tubules of columnar to flattened neoplastic cells with an abundant stroma and moderate cellular atypia consistent with a scirrhous adenocarcinoma, likely ductal in origin, given the location of the neoplastic mass. Bloodwork revealed anemia, monocytosis, marked hypercalcemia, and, postoperatively, persistent hyperglycemia. After postoperative recovery, the snake was diagnosed with iatrogenically induced diabetes mellitus and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Due to the inability to clinically control the diabetes mellitus and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and when additional palpable masses were noted, the snake was euthanatized. Necropsy and histopathologic examination confirmed metastasis of the previously removed adenocarcinoma to the liver, right kidney, and large intestine. © 2010 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source


Stoops M.A.,Center for Conservation and Research of Endangered Wildlife | West G.D.,Oklahoma City Zoo | Roth T.L.,Center for Conservation and Research of Endangered Wildlife | Lung N.P.,Fort Worth Zoo
Zoo Biology | Year: 2014

Urinary hormone analysis was conducted on two adult female Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) that exhibited minimal or no estrual behaviors traditionally used to time breeding. Urine was collected throughout two consecutive estrous cycles to establish preliminary data on each individual's pattern and concentration of estrogen conjugates (EC) and progesterone metabolites (PdG) during follicular and luteal phases. Following preliminary endocrine analysis, urine samples were shipped on a frequent basis to verify when each female was off baseline in EC. Estrus and breeding dates were then predicted. Females were introduced to fresh male rhinoceros fecal samples daily throughout the follicular phase to potentially stimulate estrous behaviors. Despite successful assessment of follicular phase dynamics, females sometimes failed to exhibit estrus. Both females conceived following mating introductions that were timed using hormone analysis. Pregnancy was diagnosed either by endocrine analysis or rectal ultrasonography. Progestational support (altrenogest) occurred after pregnancy confirmation and varied for each female (21 and 66 days post-breeding). One female experienced early pregnancy loss and the other successfully completed a term pregnancy. These results demonstrate that a science based management strategy that relies on urinary biomarkers of ovarian function can facilitate naturally breeding captive Indian rhinoceroses. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Cerveny S.N.,Oklahoma City Zoo | D'Agostino J.J.,Oklahoma City Zoo | Davis M.R.,Oklahoma City Zoo | Payton M.E.,Oklahoma State University
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2012

The laryngeal mask airway is an alternative to endotracheal intubation that achieves control of the airway by creating a seal around the larynx with an inflatable cuff. This study compared use of the laryngeal mask airway with endotracheal intubation in anesthetized western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Eight adult gorillas were immobilized for routine and diagnostic purposes for a total of nine anesthetic events. During each anesthetic event, gorillas were either intubated (n = 4; group A) or fitted with a laryngeal mask airway (n = 5; group B). Time required to place each airway device, physiologic parameters, and arterial blood gas were measured and compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups for time required to place airway device, heart rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, or arterial pH between the two groups. Mean arterial partial pressure of oxygen was significantly greater in group B, 15 (group A: 94 ± 44 mm Hg; group B: 408 ± 36 mm Hg; P = 0.0025) and 45 (group A: 104 ± 21 mm Hg; group B: 407 ± 77 mm Hg; P = 0.0026) min after airway device placement. Mean respiratory rate was significantly greater in group A at multiple time points. Mean arterial pressure (group A: 129 ± 16 mm Hg; group B: 60 ± 8 mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (group A: 115 ± 21 mm Hg; group B: 36 ± 10 mm Hg) were significantly greater in group A at the time of airway device placement. The laryngeal mask airway maintained oxygenation and ventilation effectively in all gorillas and is a useful alternative to endotracheal intubation in western lowland gorillas. © 2012 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source


Hahn A.,Oklahoma City Zoo | D'Agostino J.,Oklahoma City Zoo | Cole G.,Oklahoma City Zoo | Garner M.,Northwest ZooPath
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2013

Two meerkats (Suricata suricatta) died acutely and gastric bezoars were found at necropsy. Four of the eight remaining meerkats had bezoars identified radiographically. Surgical gastrotomies were performed and bezoars containing orange fibrous material were removed. Histologic examination of the bezoars and persimmon fruit from a tree in the exhibit revealed that the materials were identical. Tannins found in ripe persimmons are known to coagulate in the presence of gastric acid, and the resultant phytobezoars can lead to gastrointestinal obstructions. All four meerkats recovered uneventfully. The combination of interspecies aggression and a diet change may have led to consumption of persimmons produced by a tree in the exhibit. Persimmon phytobezoars are also seen in humans and horses. © 2013 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source


Benato L.,Roslin Institute | Benato L.,University of Glasgow | Wack A.,Maryland Zoo in Baltimore | Cerveny S.N.S.,Oklahoma City Zoo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2014

Cardiac disease is a common finding in small mammals but it is rarely reported in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). The aim of this survey was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiac disease in striped skunks and to characterize the types of cardiac disease that might be present. In April 2010, a questionnaire was sent to veterinarians in zoologic collections with membership in the International Species Inventory System. Surveys were distributed to 55 institutions in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Twenty collections with a total of 95 skunks replied to the questionnaire. Of these, five collections reported at least one skunk with cardiac conditions for a total of 11 cases. In these 11 animals, the following conditions were diagnosed: myocardial fibrosis (n = 4), myxomatous valve degeneration (n = 4), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 1), dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 1), and valvular endocarditis (n = 1). Based on these findings, cardiac diseases should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in captive striped skunks presenting with weakness, lethargy, and decreased appetite. Cardiac ultrasound also should be considered at the time of annual health examinations to evaluate for possible cardiac conditions at an early stage. © 2014 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

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