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Oklahoma City, OK, United States

Jan Y.-K.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Liao F.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Burns S.,Oklahoma City Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

This study investigated the effect of spinal cord injury (SCI) on nonlinear complexity of skin blood flow oscillations (BFO). Complexity of the characteristic frequencies embedded in BFO was described by the scaling coefficient derived by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the range of scaling coefficients derived from multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) in specific scale intervals. 23 subjects were recruited into this study, including 11 people with SCI and 12 healthy controls. Local heating-induced maximal sacral skin blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. The results showed that metabolic BFO (0.0095-0.02 Hz) exhibited significantly lower complexity in people with SCI as compared with healthy controls (p<0.01) during maximal vasodilation. This study demonstrated that complexity analysis of BFO can provide information of blood flow dynamics beyond traditional spectral analysis. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Wu S.,Soochow University of China | Wu S.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Patel K.B.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Booth L.J.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | And 4 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Influenza is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The recent pandemic of a novel H1N1 influenza virus has stressed the importance of the search for effective treatments for this disease. Essential oils from aromatic plants have been used for a wide variety of applications, such as personal hygiene, therapeutic massage and even medical practice. In this paper, we investigate the potential role of an essential oil in antiviral activity.Methods: We studied a commercial essential oil blend, On Guard™, and evaluated its ability in modulating influenza virus, A/PR8/34 (PR8), infection in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Influenza virus was first incubated with the essential oil and infectivity in MDCK cells was quantified by fluorescent focus assay (FFA). In order to determine the mechanism of effects of essential oil in viral infection inhibition, we measured hemagglutination (HA) activity, binding and internalization of untreated and oil-treated virus in MDCK cells by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, the effect of oil treatment on viral transcription and translation were assayed by relative end-point RT-PCR and western blot analysis.Results: Influenza virus infectivity was suppressed by essential oil treatment in a dose-dependent manner; the number of nascent viral particles released from MDCK cells was reduced by 90% and by 40% when virus was treated with 1:4,000 and 1:6,000 dilutions of the oil, respectively. Oil treatment of the virus also decreased direct infection of the cells as the number of infected MDCK cells decreased by 90% and 45% when virus was treated with 1:2,000 and 1:3,000 dilutions of the oil, respectively. This was not due to a decrease in HA activity, as HA was preserved despite oil treatment. In addition, oil treatment did not affect virus binding or internalization in MDCK cells. These effects did not appear to be due to cytotoxicity of the oil as MDCK cell viability was only seen with concentrations of oil that were 2 to 6 times greater than the doses that inhibited viral infectivity. RT-PCR and western blotting demonstrated that oil treatment of the virus inhibited viral NP and NS1 protein, but not mRNA expression.Conclusions: An essential oil blend significantly attenuates influenza virus PR8 infectivity in vitro without affecting viral binding or cellular internalization in MDCK cells. Oil treated virus continued to express viral mRNAs but had minimal expression of viral proteins, suggesting that the antiviral effect may be due to inhibition of viral protein translation. © 2010 Wu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Houston J.B.,University of Missouri | Pfefferbaum B.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Sherman M.D.,Oklahoma City Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Melson A.G.,Family Development and Intervention Services | Brand M.W.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
Journal of Loss and Trauma | Year: 2013

Frequency and quality of family deployment communication was assessed and examined in conjunction with emotions and behaviors reported by military children and spouses (N = 26) before, during, and after deployment. Child deployment communication with siblings was associated with positive child outcomes. Conversely, before and during deployment child communication with a deployed parent was related to more child emotional reactions and behavioral problems. For spouses, more and better communication with children and the deployed partner was related to the spouse's having less negative temper or stress reactions. Use of newer communication technology during deployment was related to negative child outcomes. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Nguyen A.T.,Oklahoma City Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Current drug safety | Year: 2013

High-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for the empiric treatment of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections has been evaluated for efficacy, but characterization of adverse reactions is lacking. To describe adverse reactions associated with high-dose TMP-SMX therapy, a retrospective medical record review of outpatients receiving TMP-SMX was conducted. Each episode (case) of a patient receiving high-dose TMP-SMX (at least 4 double-strength tablets per day) was matched by next closest prescription number with a patient (control) receiving standard-dose TMP-SMX. 982 cases were reviewed; 491 in each arm. At least one adverse drug reaction (ADR) occurred in 9.1% of patients. There was a significant difference in the incidence for any ADR between high-dose and standard-dose groups (13.0% vs 5.09%, respectively; p<0.0001). More patients taking high-dose TMP-SMX developed hyperkalemia (3.46% vs 0.81%, p=0.0066), acute renal injury (3.67% vs 1.63%, p=0.044), and rash (1.83% vs 0.20%, p=0.021). Patients receiving high-dose TMP-SMX had significantly higher rates of electrolyte abnormality ADR (5.09% vs 1.63%, p=0.0021), gastrointestinal ADR (5.30% vs 2.24%, p=0.011), renal ADR (3.67% vs 1.63%, p=0.044), central nervous system ADR (2.65% vs 0.81%, p=0.047), and hypersensitivity (2.24% vs 0.41%, p=0.022). Concomitant receipt of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor was a univariate variable associated with hyperkalemia, and advanced age and receipt of high-dose TMP-SMX were independent variables. ADRs such as hyperkalemia are more likely to be associated with the use of high-dose TMP-SMX in the ambulatory setting. Clinicians should use caution when initiating high-dose TMP-SMX and consider laboratory monitoring in patients of advanced age or those receiving concomitant ACE inhibitor therapy. Source

Wisdom N.M.,Michael bakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Wisdom N.M.,Baylor College of Medicine | Pastorek N.J.,Michael bakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Pastorek N.J.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Neuropsychologist | Year: 2014

Many studies have observed an association between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cognitive deficits across several domains including memory, attention, and executive functioning. The inclusion of response bias measures in these studies, however, remains largely unaddressed. The purpose of this study was to identify possible cognitive impairments correlated with PTSD in returning OEF/OIF/OND veterans after excluding individuals failing a well-validated performance validity test. Participants included 126 men and 8 women with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) referred for a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation as part of a consortium of five Veterans Affairs hospitals. The PTSD CheckList (PCL) and Word Memory Test (WMT) were used to establish symptoms of PTSD and invalid performance, respectively. Groups were categorized as follows: Control (PCL < 50, pass WMT), PTSD-pass (PCL ≥ 50, pass WMT), and PTSD-fail (PCL ≥ 50, fail WMT). As hypothesized, failure on the WMT was associated with significantly poorer performance on almost all cognitive tests administered; however, no significant differences were detected between individuals with and without PTSD symptoms after separating out veterans failing the WMT. These findings highlight the importance of assessing respondent validity in future research examining cognitive functioning in psychiatric illness and warrant further consideration of prior studies reporting PTSD-associated cognitive deficits. © This work was authored as part of the Contributors official duties as an Employee of the United States Government and is therefore a work of the United States Government. In accordance with 17 U.S.C. 105, no copyright protection is available for such works under U.S. Law. Source

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