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Sharman E.D.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | Lancaster P.A.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | McMurphy C.P.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | Garmyn A.J.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of growth rate to similar age or BW on fat deposition in stocker cattle grazing dormant native range (DNR) or winter wheat pasture (WP). In each experiment, fall-weaned Angus steers were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 stocker production programs: 1) control, 1.02 kg/d of a 40% CP cottonseed mealbased supplement during grazing of DNR (CON); 2) corn/soybean meal-based supplement fed at 1% of BW during grazing of DNR (CORN); 3) grazing WP at a high stocking rate to achieve a low rate of BW gain (LGWP); and 4) grazing WP at a low stocking rate to achieve a high rate of BW gain (HGWP). In Exp. 1, a subset of steers (3 steers per treatment) was harvested after winter grazing (138 d) at similar age. The remaining WP steers were transitioned into the finishing phase, whereas DNR steers were allowed to graze the same native range pastures for another 115 d without supplementation before entering the feedyard. In Exp. 2, steers grazed their respective pastures until each treatment reached an estimated HCW of 200 kg (262, 180, 142, and 74 d, respectively, for the CON, CORN, LGWP, and HGWP treatments), at which time a subset of steers (4 steers per treatment) were selected for intermediate harvest before finishing. In both experiments, the remaining steers were fed a finishing diet to a common 12th-rib fat thickness of 1.27 cm. In Exp. 1, winter grazing ADG was 0.19, 0.52, 0.68, and 1.37 ± 0.03 kg/d; and in Exp. 2, winter/summer grazing ADG was 0.46, 0.61, 0.83, and 1.29 ± 0.02 kg/d, respectively for CON, CORN, LGWP, and HGWP treatments. At intermediate harvest in Exp. 1, HGWP steers had greater (P < 0.01) 12th-rib fat thickness and marbling scores, compared with the other treatments. However, in Exp. 2, LGWP steers had greater (P < 0.01) marbling scores compared with HGWP steers, which were greater than DNR steers. At final harvest in Exp. 1, LGWP steers had greater (P < 0.01) 12th-rib fat thickness and smaller LM area, compared with the other treatments; however, there were no differences (P = 0.99) in final marbling scores. In Exp. 2, CON steers had lower (P < 0.05) 12th-rib fat thickness and tended (P = 0.10) to have greater marbling scores, compared with the other treatments. These data suggest that changes in the partitioning of fat among depots during the stocker phase may not be reflected after finishing when steers are fed to a common 12th-rib fat thickness. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source


Lancaster P.A.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | Sharman E.D.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | Horn G.W.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | Krehbiel C.R.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | Starkey J.D.,Texas Tech University
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to determine the impact of stocker production systems differing in growth rate on differential adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression of intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), and perirenal (PR) adipose tissues. Angus steers were assigned to 4 stocker cattle production systems in 2 consecutive years: 1) cottonseed meal-based supplement while grazing dormant native range (CON), 2) ground corn/soybean meal-based supplement while grazing dormant native range (CORN), 3) grazing wheat pasture at a high stocking rate for a low rate of BW gain (LGWP), and 4) grazing wheat pasture at a low stocking rate for a high rate of BW gain (HGWP). Steers were harvested during the stocker phase at similar age (different carcass weight) in Exp. 1 (3 steers/treatment) or at similar carcass weight in Exp. 2 (4 steers/treatment). Adipose tissues were analyzed for mRNA expression of adipogenic (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ [PPARγ], sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 [SREBF1], CAATT/enhancer binding protein β, and delta-like homolog 1) and lipogenic (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GPDH], fatty acid synthase [FASN], and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 [DGAT2]) genes. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the expression of adipogenic or lipogenic genes collectively. There was not a treatment × adipose tissue interaction (F-test, P > 0.15) when steers were harvested at similar age, but a treatment × adipose tissue interaction (F-test, P < 0.05) was evident when steers were harvested at similar carcass weight. At similar carcass weight, treatment had no effect (P> 0.10) on the canonical variate of adipogenic or lipogenic mRNA expression in IM adipose tissue, but faster rates of gain of LGWP and HGWP steers increased (P < 0.10) the canonical variate of adipogenic and lipogenic mRNA expression in SC and PR adipose tissue compared with CON and CORN steers. Strong positive correlations (P < 0.05) of PPARγ, SREBF1, GPDH, FASN, and DGAT2 mRNA expression with the canonical variate indicate that these genes strongly influenced differences between treatments and adipose tissues. These results suggest that contrary to our hypothesis rate of gain has little influence on differentiation and lipid synthesis of IM adipose tissue at similar carcass weight but faster rates of gain increase differentiation and lipid synthesis of SC and PR adipose tissue even at similar carcass weight. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source


Lancaster P.A.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | Sharman E.D.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | Horn G.W.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | Krehbiel C.R.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to determine the impact of stocker production systems differing in growth rate on rumen fermentation characteristics and utilization of substrates for fatty acid synthesis in intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), and perirenal (PR) adipose tissues. Angus steers were assigned to 4 stocker cattle production systems in 2 consecutive years: 1) 1.0 kg/d of 40% CP cottonseed meal–based supplement while grazing dormant native range (CON), 2) ground corn/soybean meal–based supplement while grazing dormant native range fed at 1% of BW (CORN), 3) grazing wheat pasture at a high stocking rate to achieve a low rate of BW gain (LGWP), and 4) grazing wheat pasture at a low stocking rate for a high rate of BW gain (HGWP). Eight ruminally cannulated steers were used to determine rumen fermentation characteristics. Steers were harvested during the stocker phase at similar age (different carcass weight) in Exp. 1 (3 steers/treatment) or at similar carcass weight in Exp. 2 (4 steers/treatment). Adipose tissues were analyzed for mRNA expression of genes involved in glucose (solute carrier family 2, member 4 [GLUT4], glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PDH], phosphofructokinase, muscle [PFKM], and pyruvate kinase 2, muscle [PK2]), lactate (lactate dehydrogenase B [LDHB]), and acetate (acetyl-CoA synthetase, cytosol [ACSS2]) utilization for fatty acid synthesis. The acetate:propionate ratio was least (P < 0.05) for HGWP steers, intermediate for CORN and LGWP steers, and greatest for CON steers. At similar age, LGWP and HGWP steers tended (F-test; P < 0.15) to have greater (P < 0.10) G6PDH and ACSS2 mRNA expression than CON and CORN steers in SC and PR but not IM adipose tissue. Expression of PFKM and PK2 mRNA tended (F-test; P < 0.15) to be greater (P < 0.10) in HGWP than CON and LGWP steers in IM but not SC or PR adipose tissue. At similar HCW, expression of GLUT4 and G6PDH mRNA were greater (P < 0.10) in SC adipose tissue of LGWP and HGWP steers compared with CON and CORN steers but not in IM and PR adipose tissue. Expression of LDHB mRNA was lesser (P < 0.10) in SC adipose tissue but greater (P < 0.10) in PR adipose tissue of LGWP and HGWP steers compared with CON and CORN steers. These results indicate a shift toward glucose utilization in SC adipose tissue but a shift towards lactate utilization in PR adipose tissue. These results suggest that diet and changes in VFA profile can influence substrates utilized for fatty acid synthesis, but diet has a greater effect in SC than IM adipose tissue. © 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source


Sharman E.D.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | Lancaster P.A.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | McMurphy C.P.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | Mafi G.G.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of rate of BW gain during the stocker phase on visceral organ mass and body composition of growing-finishing cattle that had grazed dormant native range (DNR) or winter wheat pasture (WP). In each experiment, fall-weaned steers were allotted randomly to 1 of these stocker production programs: 1) control, 1.02 kg · steer-1 · d-1 of a 40% CP cottonseed mealbased supplement during grazing of DNR (CON); 2) corn/soybean meal-based supplement fed at 1% of BW during grazing of DNR (CORN); 3) grazing WP at a high stocking rate to achieve a reduced rate of BW gain (LGWP); and 4) grazing WP at a low stocking rate to achieve an increased rate of BW gain (HGWP). In Exp. 1, 3 steers per treatment were harvested after winter grazing (138 d). The remaining WP steers were transitioned into a finishing phase and DNR steers were allowed to graze the same pastures for another 115 d before entering a feedyard. In Exp. 2, steers grazed respective pastures until each treatment reached an estimated HCW of 200 kg (262, 180, 142, and 74 d, respectively, for CON, CORN, LGWP, and HGWP treatments), at which time 4 steers per treatment were randomly selected for interme diate harvest before finishing. At the end of the finishing period, 4 additional steers from each treatment were randomly selected for final carcass measurements. All steers were fed to a common 12th rib fat thickness of 1.27 cm. After winter grazing in Exp. 1, HGWP steers had the greatest (P < 0.01) mesenteric/omental fat, total viscera, total splanchnic tissue mass, and carcass and empty body fat, compared with the other treatments. In Exp. 2 at intermediate harvest, WP steers had greater (P < 0.03) mesenteric/omental fat, total viscera, and total splanchnic tissue mass, compared with CORN steers, with CON steers being intermediate. Also, the WP steers had greater (P < 0.02) carcass and empty body fat, compared with CORN steers, with CON steers being intermediate. At final harvest in Exp. 2, LGWP steers had the least total viscera and total splanchnic tissue mass, compared with the other treatments. However, there were no differences (P > 0.53) among treatments for carcass or empty body fat. Stocker systems using WP or DNR result in cattle with differences in body fat and visceral organ mass before finishing; this may influence feedlot efficiency, even though there were no differences in body fat and visceral organ mass at the end of the finishing period. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source


Lents C.A.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | Lents C.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Looper M.L.,Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station | Looper M.L.,University of Arkansas | And 5 more authors.
Professional Animal Scientist | Year: 2015

Our objective was to determine the effects of acute nutrient restriction on secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in serum of male cattle. Angus × Hereford steers (402 ±: 17 kg) with rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to treatment. Control (n = 4) steers had ruminal contents completely removed and immediately replaced, whereas restricted (n = 4) steers had ruminal contents completely removed and only 15% (5 L) of rumen contents replaced. Beginning at 1600 h on d 0, control steers were fed 9 kg of prairie hay and 1 kg of a grain supplement each day, whereas restricted steers were fed 1.8 kg of prairie hay daily. Blood samples were collected twice daily for determination of plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, and urea nitrogen. Serial blood samples were collected at 10-min intervals for 8 h on d -1, 0, 1, and 3 to determine serum concentrations of LH. Concentrations of LH (P ≤ 0.01) were greater on d -1 compared with after removal and replacement of ruminal contents on d 0 and 1. Amplitude of LH pulses was greater on d -1 (P ≤ 0.02) compared with d 1 and 3. Concentrations of glucose in plasma were not influenced by treatment or day, but concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and urea nitrogen in plasma after d 0 were greater (P ≤ 0.01) in restricted than control steers. It is concluded that secretion of LH in steers is resistant to rapid changes in nutrient availability. © 2015 American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists. Source

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