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Horita M.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Suga Y.,Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center | Ooshiro A.,Okinawa Prefectural Agricultural Research Center | Tsuchiya K.,Kyushu University
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

We assessed the geographic distribution, biovar, phylotype, DNA fingerprints (rep-PCR), and/or endoglucanase sequence of potato bacterial wilt pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs), in Japan. Rs has been isolated from potato fields in southwestern, warm, temperate regions. Of the 188 isolates, 74 belonged to biovar N2 (39%), 44 to biovar 3 (24%), and 70 to biovar 4 (37%). Biovars N2 and 4 strains were widely distributed, from northern (Hokkaido) to southern (Okinawa) Japan. Based on the results of multiplex-PCR analysis, every potato strains belonged to either phylotype I or IV. Phylotype I comprised both biovars 3 and 4 strains. On the other hand, phylotype IV included biovar N2 strains. None of the strains belonged to phylotype II or III or biovar 1 or 2. Phylogenetic analysis based on DNA fingerprints and endoglucanase gene sequences clarified the genetic diversity of the Japanese potato strains and the close genetic relationship between the Japanese strains and the Asian strains in phylotypes I and IV. © 2010 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer. Source

Arakaki N.,Okinawa Prefectural Agricultural Research Center | Yamazawa H.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Yamazawa H.,Tokai Gakuin University | Wakamura S.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Wakamura S.,Kyoto Gakuen University
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2011

Egg parasitoids Telenomus euproctidis Wilcox (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) were attracted to egg masses laid by wingless immobile female Orgyia postica (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Virgin females, a solvent extract of pheromone glands, and a synthetic sex pheromone, (6Z,9Z,11S,12S)-11,12-epoxyhenicosa-6,9-diene (posticlure), also attracted this parasitoid in the field, demonstrating that T. euproctidis uses the sex pheromone of female Org. postica as a kairomone to locate host eggs. © 2011 The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology. Source

Tabata J.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Ohno S.,Okinawa Prefectural Agricultural Research Center
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2015

The grey pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus neobrevipes Beardsley, originally found on Hawaii and on Australasian islands, was recently discovered on a southwestern island (Ishigaki Island) of Japan. Because D. neobrevipes is known to attack many fruits and other crops, it is essential to establish a strategy to prevent the spread of this potential pest. Detection and monitoring by use of pheromone traps would provide important information about its distribution. The sex pheromone of D. neobrevipes has been isolated and identified as (E)-2-isopropyl-5-methylhexa-3,5-dien-1-yl acetate, although its absolute configuration was unknown. In this study, we achieved enantioselective synthesis of this compound by use of porcine pancreas lipase (PPL)-catalyzed acylation. Acetyl transfer from vinyl acetate to prochiral 2-isopropyl-1,3-propanediol in the presence of PPL in an organic solvent predominantly produced the (R) enantiomer of the monohydroxy acetate (86 % ee). In contrast, PPL-catalyzed hydrolysis of 2-isopropyl-1,3-diacetoxypropane in phosphate buffer yielded the (S) enantiomer of the monohydroxy acetate (75 % ee). Each enantiomer of the monohydroxy acetate was oxidized to a formyl acetate then coupled with a Wittig reagent, to produce the (R)-(−) and (S)-(+) pheromones. Analysis by gas chromatography with a chiral column and by polarimetry revealed the natural pheromone to be the (S)-(+) enantiomer. In a field trap experiment, the attractiveness of the pheromone produced by this route was equivalent to that of the pure (+) enantiomer (>99 % ee). © 2015, The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology. Source

Hirose N.,Okinawa Prefectural Agricultural Research Center
Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi | Year: 2012

Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) is a well-known traditional citrus fruit from Okinawa, with over 200 cultivars and varieties reported. The harvest season of Shiikuwasha is extensive, from August to February, and Shiikuwasha has a unique usage pattern. Unripe fruit, harvested in August and September, is used for cooking, while partially ripe fruit, available from October to December, is used for machining (mainly for juice). Ripe fruit with reduced acidity is available in January and February and is used unmodified. Polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) are characteristic components of Shiikuwasha. Depending on harvest time and variety, alterations in juice quantities, citric acid concentrations, and PMFs were observed. Most applications of Shiikuwasha involve juice processing. Notably, the efficiency of Shiikuwasha juice production is only about 50%. Many useful components are contained in the peel, and remain in the residue. A comparison of extraction methods revealed that a multi-stage extraction recovered more useful components. According to marketing research, consumer demand exists for products of Shiikuwasha as a seasoning. Therefore, we are developing applications (especially as seasonings) for juice residue containing essential oils and PMFs. Source

Kuriwada T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Kumano N.,Okinawa Prefectural Plant Protection Center | Shiromoto K.,Okinawa Prefectural Plant Protection Center | Haraguchi D.,Okinawa Prefectural Agricultural Research Center
Journal of Applied Entomology | Year: 2014

For ensuring the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes, maintaining the reproductive competitiveness and dispersal ability of mass-reared sterile males is essential. Inadvertent selection is an important genetic process that frequently occurs during mass rearing to produce sterile males. We investigated the effect of mass-rearing conditions on the responsiveness to sex pheromones and spontaneous flight activity of males of the sweetpotato weevil Cylas formicarius (Coleoptera: Brentidae). There were no significant differences in the responsiveness to sex pheromones and spontaneous flight activity between wild and mass-reared strains. These results indicate that mass-reared strains of C. formicarius might not cause serious problems for implementing SIT programmes. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

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