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Okinawa, Japan

The Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University is an interdisciplinary graduate school located in Onna, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. The school offers a 5-year PhD program in Science. Over half of the faculty and students are recruited from outside Japan, and all education and research is conducted entirely in English.The university has no departments—OIST researchers conduct multi-disciplinary research in neuroscience, mathematical and computational science, physics, chemistry, integrative biology and molecular, cell, and developmental biology. The university received accreditation on November 1, 2011, and began classes in September 2012.OIST relies on public subsidies paid by the Japanese government. The government subsidy for OIST comes in two areas: a subsidy for operations and a subsidy for facilities. Wikipedia.

Ueda H.T.,Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan | Year: 2015

We study the effect of adding interlayer coupling to the square lattice, J1-J2 Heisenberg model in high external magnetic field. In particular, we consider a cubic lattice formed from stacked J1-J2 layers, with interlayer exchange coupling JC. For the two-dimensional model (JC = 0) it has been shown that a spin-nematic phase appears close to the saturation magnetic field for the parameter range -0:4 <∼ J2=J1 and J2 > 0. We determine the phase diagram for three-dimensional model at high magnetic field by representing spin flips out of the saturated state as bosons, considering the dilute boson limit and using the Bethe-Salpeter equation to determine the first instability of the saturated paramagnet. Close to the highly frustrated point J2/J1 ∼ 0.5, we find that the spin-nematic state is stable even for \JC/J1\ ∼ 1. For larger values of J2/J1, interlayer coupling favors a broad, phase-separated region. Further increase of \JC\ stabilizes a collinear antiferromagnet, which is selected via the order-by-disorder mechanism. © 2015 The Physical Society of Japan.

Yanagida M.,Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2014

Mitosis is a cell-cycle stage during which condensed chromosomes migrate to the middle of the cell and segregate into two daughter nuclei before cytokinesis (cell division) with the aid of a dynamic mitotic spindle. The history of mitosis research is quite long, commencing well before the discovery of DNA as the repository of genetic information. However, great and rapid progress has been made since the introduction of recombinant DNA technology and discovery of universal cell-cycle control. A large number of conserved eukaryotic genes required for the progression from early to late mitotic stages have been discovered, confirming thatDNAreplication and mitosis are the two main events in the cell-division cycle. In this article, a historical overview of mitosis is given, emphasizing the importance of diverse model organisms that have been used to solve fundamental questions about mitosis. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play significant roles in multiple biological processes in metazoan cells. To address the evolutionary history of this gene family, comprehensive and detailed characterization in basal metazoans is essential. Here I report a genome-wide survey of bHLH genes in the Placozoan, Trichoplax adhaerens. The present survey revealed ancient origins of two orthologous families, 48-related-1/Fer1 and ASCb, which both belong to high-order Group A. Group A factors are mainly involved in neural and mesodermal differentiation. I also identified novel members of a Group E orthologous family previously thought to be unique to Homo sapiens. These were discovered in Trichoplax, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, Euperipatoides kanangrensis, and Crassostrea gigas, but apparently are not found in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, or Nematostella vectensis. Furthermore, as reported previously, many unclassified Group A members were observed in Trichoplax. The present study provides important information to infer the ancestral state of bHLH components in the Metazoa. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Qi Y.,Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology
Surface Science Reports | Year: 2011

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has found its applications in a wide range of research fields. In this review, we show by examples that atomic force microscopy is a powerful technique to investigate structural, mechanical and electrical properties of organic films. We start with an introduction of AFM instrumentation highlighting AFM developments that are of direct relevance to organic films. Next, we review AFM studies on organic films according to their preparation methods: self-assembly, the LangmuirBlodgett technique, solution preparation, and thermal evaporation. In the discussion on self-assembled monolayers, we focus on aspects such as structural evolution, load-induced molecular tilting, annealing, and incorporation of conjugated groups. For solution prepared organic films, we stress annealing-induced structural evolution as well as the effects of phase separation/segregation. We also briefly summarize the progress of AFM investigation on LangmuirBlodgett films and thermally evaporated organic films. We conclude the review by providing some thoughts for future exploration. In particular, atomic force microscopy combined with ultra-flat coplanar nano-electrodes provides a promising platform to isolate single or a small number of molecular features (e.g. vacancies, defects, grain boundaries) in organic films as well as to identify the role of these features at the nanometer scale. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gallimore A.R.,Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2015

The psychological state elicited by the classic psychedelics drugs, such as LSD and psilocybin, is one of the most fascinating and yet least understood states of consciousness. However, with the advent of modern functional neuroimaging techniques, the effect of these drugs on neural activity is now being revealed, although many of the varied phenomenological features of the psychedelic state remain challenging to explain. Integrated information theory (IIT) is one of the foremost contemporary theories of consciousness, providing a mathematical formalization of both the quantity and quality of conscious experience. This theory can be applied to all known states of consciousness, including the psychedelic state. Using the results of functional neuroimaging data on the psychedelic state, the effects of psychedelic drugs on both the level and structure of consciousness can be explained in terms of the conceptual framework of IIT. This new IIT-based model of the psychedelic state provides an explanation for many of its phenomenological features, including unconstrained cognition, alterations in the structure and meaning of concepts and a sense of expanded awareness. This model also suggests that whilst cognitive flexibility, creativity, and imagination are enhanced during the psychedelic state, this occurs at the expense of cause-effect information, as well as degrading the brain's ability to organize, categorize, and differentiate the constituents of conscious experience. Furthermore, the model generates specific predictions that can be tested using a combination of functional imaging techniques, as has been applied to the study of levels of consciousness during anesthesia and following brain injury. © 2015 Gallimore.

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