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Philchenkov A.A.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Zavelevich M.P.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Tryndyak V.P.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Kuiava L.M.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Biology and Therapy | Year: 2015

Recently, a series of novel arylthioindole compounds, potent inhibitors of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth, were synthesized. In the present study the effects of 2-(1H-pyrrol-3-yl)-3-((3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)thio)-1H-indole (ATI5 compound) on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and induction of apoptosis in human T-cell acute leukemia Jurkat cells and their multidrug resistant Jurkat/A4 subline were investigated. Treatment of the Jurkat cells with the ATI5 compound for 48 hrs resulted in a strong G2/M cell cycle arrest and p53-independent apoptotic cell death accompanied by the induction of the active form of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleavage. ATI5 treatment also caused non-cell death related mitotic arrest in multidrug resistant Jurkat/A4 cells after 48 hrs of treatment suggesting promising opportunities for the further design of pyrrole-containing ATI compounds as anticancer agents. Cell death resistance of Jurkat/A4 cells to ATI5 compound was associated with alterations in the expression of pro-survival and anti-apoptotic protein-coding and microRNA genes. More importantly, findings showing that ATI5 treatment induced p53-independent apoptosis are of great importance from a therapeutic point of view since p53 mutations are common genetic alterations in human neoplasms. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Yemelyanov A.,Northwestern University | Bhalla P.,Northwestern University | Yang X.,Northwestern University | Ugolkov A.,Northwestern University | And 3 more authors.
Cell Cycle | Year: 2012

Androgen (AR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptor signaling play opposing roles in prostate tumorigenesis: in prostate, AR acts as an oncogene, and GR is a tumor suppressor. Recently, we found that non-steroidal phyto-chemical Compound A (CpdA) is AR/GR modulator acting as anti-inflammatory anti-androgen. CpdA inhibits AR and prevents GR transactivation while enhancing GR transrepression. GR and AR are controlled by proteasomal degradation. We found that prolonged exposure of LNCaP, LNCaP-GR, DU145 and PC3 prostate carcinoma (PCa) cells to proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib (BZ) caused AR degradation and GR accumulation. BZ enhanced CpdA ability to inhibit AR and to augment GR transrepression. We also found that CpdA+BZ differentially regulated GR/AR to cooperatively suppress PCa cell growth and survival and to induce endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Importantly, CpdA+BZ differentially regulated GR-responsive genes. CpdA+BZ blocked activation of glucocorticoid-responsive pro-survival genes, including SGK1, but activated BZ-induced ERS-related genes BIP/HSPA5 and CHOP/GADD153. Using ChIP, we showed that SGK1, BIP/HSPA5 and CHOP regulation was due to effects of CpdA and CpdA+BZ on GR loading on their promoters. We also found that AR and GR are abundant in advanced PCa from patients treated by androgen ablation and/or chemotherapy: 56% of carcinomas from treated patients expressed both receptors, and the other 27% expressed either GR or AR. Overall, our data validate the concept of dual AR/GR targeting in prostate cancer (PC) and suggest that BZ combination with dual-target steroid receptor modulator CpdA has high potential for PC therapy. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.

Garon E.B.,University of California at Los Angeles | Ciuleanu T.-E.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Arrieta O.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Prabhash K.,Tata Memorial Center | And 20 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Background Ramucirumab is a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets the extracellular domain of VEGFR-2. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of treatment with docetaxel plus ramucirumab or placebo as second-line treatment for patients with stage IV non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC) after platinum-based therapy. Methods In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial (REVEL), we enrolled patients with squamous or non-squamous NSCLC who had progressed during or after a first-line platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) with a centralised, interactive voice-response system (stratified by sex, region, performance status, and previous maintenance therapy [yes vs no]) to receive docetaxel 75 mg/m 2 and either ramucirumab (10 mg/kg) or placebo on day 1 of a 21 day cycle until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, withdrawal, or death. The primary endpoint was overall survival in all patients allocated to treatment. We assessed adverse events according to treatment received. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01168973. Findings Between Dec 3, 2010, and Jan 24, 2013, we screened 1825 patients, of whom 1253 patients were randomly allocated to treatment. Median overall survival was 10·5 months (IQR 5·1-21·2) for 628 patients allocated ramucirumab plus docetaxel and 9·1 months (4·2-18·0) for 625 patients who received placebo plus docetaxel (hazard ratio 0·86, 95% CI 0·75-0·98; p=0·023). Median progression-free survival was 4·5 months (IQR 2·3-8·3) for the ramucirumab group compared with 3·0 months (1·4-6·9) for the control group (0·76, 0·68-0·86; p<0·0001). We noted treatment-emergent adverse events in 613 (98%) of 627 patients in the ramucirumab safety population and 594 (95%) of 618 patients in the control safety population. The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were neutropenia (306 patients [49%] in the ramucirumab group vs 246 [40%] in the control group), febrile neutropenia (100 [16%] vs 62 [10%]), fatigue (88 [14%] vs 65 [10%]), leucopenia (86 [14%] vs 77 [12%]), and hypertension (35 [6%] vs 13 [2%]). The numbers of deaths from adverse events (31 [5%] vs 35 [6%]) and grade 3 or worse pulmonary haemorrhage (eight [1%] vs eight [1%]) did not differ between groups. Toxicities were manageable with appropriate dose reductions and supportive care. Interpretation Ramucirumab plus docetaxel improves survival as second-line treatment of patients with stage IV NSCLC. Funding Eli Lilly. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Witzens-Harig M.,University of Heidelberg | Foa R.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Di Rocco A.,University of Rome La Sapienza | van Hazel G.,University of Western Australia | And 9 more authors.
Annals of Hematology | Year: 2014

Previous randomized trials have demonstrated that rituximab maintenance (R-maintenance) can prolong time to progressive disease in patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). The phase IIIb MAXIMA study (NCT00430352) was a large prospective evaluation of R-maintenance in a daily care setting. The primary objective was safety. Secondary objectives included progression-free survival, overall survival, time to next lymphoma treatment, and partial response (PR) to complete response/unconfirmed (CR/CRu) conversion rate. Patients (n = 545) with first-line or relapsed FL who responded to 8 cycles of rituximab-based induction received R-maintenance every 2 months for 2 years. At study entry, 380 patients had CR or CRu, and 165 had PR. The median age was 57.0 years. The most common non-hematologic adverse events (AEs, excluding infusion-related reactions) were cough (9.9 % of patients), fatigue (7.5 %), nasopharyngitis (7.1 %), back pain (6.5 %), diarrhea (6.9 %), arthralgia (6.0 %), headache and hypertension (5.2 % each), and pyrexia (5.1 %). The majority of AEs were grade 1 or 2. Grade 3, 4, and 5 infections occurred in 21 (3.9 %), 2 (0.4 %), and 1 (0.2 %) patient, respectively. Fifty-one hematologic AEs occurred in 6.6 % (n = 35) of patients. Grade 3/4 prolonged neutropenia and hypogammaglobulinemia occurred in 13 (2.4 %) and 5 (0.9 %) patients, respectively. All cases of prolonged neutropenia or hypogammaglobulinemia were manageable and resolved. Fast infusion did not alter the safety profile. Efficacy was comparable with results from previous trials. R-maintenance is safe in a daily care setting for patients with first-line or relapsed FL. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Baida G.,Northwestern University | Bhalla P.,Northwestern University | Kirsanov K.,okhin Cancer Research Center | Lesovaya E.,okhin Cancer Research Center | And 7 more authors.
EMBO Molecular Medicine | Year: 2015

Cutaneous atrophy is the major adverse effect of topical glucocorticoids; however, its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we identify stress-inducible mTOR inhibitor REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage response 1) as a major molecular target of glucocorticoids, which mediates cutaneous atrophy. In REDD1 knockout (KO) mice, all skin compartments (epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous fat), epidermal stem, and progenitor cells were protected from atrophic effects of glucocorticoids. Moreover, REDD1 knockdown resulted in similar consequences in organotypic raft cultures of primary human keratinocytes. Expression profiling revealed that gene activation by glucocorticoids was strongly altered in REDD1 KO epidermis. In contrast, the down-regulation of genes involved in anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid response was strikingly similar in wild-type and REDD1 KO mice. Integrative bioinformatics analysis of our and published gene array data revealed similar changes of gene expression in epidermis and in muscle undergoing glucocorticoid-dependent and glucocorticoid-independent atrophy. Importantly, the lack of REDD1 did not diminish the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids in preclinical model. Our findings suggest that combining steroids with REDD1 inhibitors may yield a novel, safer glucocorticoid-based therapies. Synopsis: Cutaneous atrophy is the major adverse effect of topical glucocorticoids (GC). In a preclinical setting, knockdown of the stress-inducible mTOR inhibitor REDD1 preserves the anti-inflammatory effect of GC while protecting from atrophy. REDD1, a stress-inducible inhibitor of mTOR, is up-regulated in human and mouse skin in response to glucocorticoids used at atrophogenic doses. REDD1 KO animals preserve sensitivity to the anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoids, but are more resistant to steroid-induced skin atrophy. In a REDD1 KO cell context, gene activation by glucocorticoids (including genes involved in catabolism and degradation of lipids and proteins) is altered. However, the negative regulation of pro-inflammatory genes, which underlies the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoids, was preserved. The findings suggest the development of safer GR-targeted therapy based on the combination of topical glucocorticoids combined with REDD1 inhibitors to prevent/attenuate skin atrophy. Cutaneous atrophy is the major adverse effect of topical glucocorticoids (GC). In a preclinical setting, knockdown of the stress-inducible mTOR inhibitor REDD1 preserves the anti-inflammatory effect of GC while protecting from atrophy. © 2014 The Authors.

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