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Nakajima H.,Nagoya University | Takatani N.,Nagoya University | Yoshimitsu K.,Nagoya University | Itoh M.,Nagoya University | And 3 more authors.
FEBS Journal | Year: 2010

Transcriptional activator VnfA is required for the expression of a second nitrogenase system encoded in the vnfH and vnfDGK operons in Azotobacter vinelandii. In the present study, we have purified full-length VnfA produced in E. coli as recombinant proteins (Strep-tag attached and tag-less proteins), enabling detailed characterization of VnfA for the first time. The EPR spectra of whole cells producing tag-less VnfA (VnfA) show distinctive signals assignable to a 3Fe-4S cluster in the oxidized form ([Fe 3S 4] +). Although aerobically purified VnfA shows no vestiges of any Fe-S clusters, enzymatic reconstitution under anaerobic conditions reproduced [Fe 3S 4] + dominantly in the protein. Additional spectroscopic evidence of [Fe 3S 4] +in vitro is provided by anaerobically purified Strep-tag attached VnfA. Thus, spectroscopic studies both in vivo and in vitro indicate the involvement of [Fe 3S 4] + as a prosthetic group in VnfA. Molecular mass analyses reveal that VnfA is a tetramer both in the presence and absence of the Fe-S cluster. Quantitative data of iron and acid-labile sulfur in reconstituted VnfA are fitted with four 3Fe-4S clusters per a tetramer, suggesting that one subunit bears one cluster. In vivoβ-gal assays reveal that the Fe-S cluster which is presumably anchored in the GAF domain by the N-terminal cysteine residues is essential for VnfA to exert its transcription activity on the target nitrogenase genes. Unlike the NifAL system of A. vinelandii, O 2 shows no effect on the transcriptional activity of VnfA but reactive oxygen species is reactive to cause disassembly of the Fe-S cluster and turns active VnfA inactive. © 2010 FEBS.


Hashimoto M.,Osaka University | Shinohara K.,Osaka University | Wang J.,University of California at San Diego | Wang J.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | And 10 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2010

Rotational movement of the node cilia generates a leftward fluid flow in the mouse embryo because the cilia are posteriorly tilted. However, it is not known how anterior-posterior information is translated into the posterior tilt of the node cilia. Here, we show that the basal body of node cilia is initially positioned centrally but then gradually shifts toward the posterior side of the node cells. Positioning of the basal body and unidirectional flow were found to be impaired in compound mutant mice lacking Dvl genes. Whereas the basal body was normally positioned in the node cells of Wnt3a-/- embryos, inhibition of Rac1, a component of the noncanonical Wnt signalling pathway, impaired the polarized localization of the basal body in wild-type embryos. Dvl2 and Dvl3 proteins were found to be localized to the apical side of the node cells, and their location was polarized to the posterior side of the cells before the posterior positioning of the basal body. These results suggest that posterior positioning of the basal body, which provides the posterior tilt to node cilia, is determined by planar polarization mediated by noncanonical Wnt signalling. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Katayama R.,University of Tokyo | Katayama R.,Cancer Chemotherapy Center | Ishioka T.,University of Tokyo | Takada S.,Okazaki Institute for Integrative Biosciences | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2010

Cellular FLIP (cFLIP) inhibits the apoptosis signaling initiated by death receptor ligation. We previously reported that a long form of cFLIP (cFLIP-L) enhances Wnt signaling via inhibition of β-catenin ubiquitylation. In this report, we present evidence that cFLIP-L translocates into the nucleus, which could have a role in modulation of Wnt signaling. cFLIP-L has a functional bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at the C-terminus. Wild-type cFLIP-L (wt-FLIP-L) localizes in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas NLS-mutated cFLIP-L localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm. cFLIP-L also has a nuclear export signal (NES) near the NLS, and leptomycin B, an inhibitor of CRM1-dependent nuclear export, increases the nuclear accumulation of cFLIP-L, suggesting that it shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Expression of mutant cFLIP-L proteins with a deletion or mutations in the NLS and NES confers resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis, as does wt-FLIP-L, but they do not enhance Wnt signaling, which suggests an important role of the C-terminus of cFLIP-L in Wnt-signaling modulation. When wt-FLIP-L is expressed in the cytoplasm by conjugation with exogenous NES (NES-FLIP-L), Wnt signaling is not enhanced, whereas the NES-FLIP-L increases cytoplasmic β-catenin as efficiently as wt-FLIP-L. cFLIP-L physically interacts with the reporter plasmid for Wnt signaling, but not with the control plasmid. These results suggest a role for nuclear cFLIP-L in the modulation of Wnt signaling.


Nishita M.,Kobe University | Itsukushima S.,Kobe University | Nomachi A.,Kobe University | Endo M.,Kobe University | And 6 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2010

The receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2 acts as a receptor or coreceptor for Wnt5a to mediate Wnt5a-induced activation of the Wnt/JNK pathway and inhibition of the β-catenin-dependent canonical Wnt pathway. However, little is known about how Ror2 cooperates with another receptor component(s) to mediate Wnt5a signaling. We show here that Ror2 regulates Wnt5a-induced polymerization of Dishevelled (Dvl) and that this Ror2-mediated regulation of Dvl is independent of the cytoplasmic region of Ror2. Ror2 can associate with Frizzled7 (Fz7) via its extracellular cysteine-rich domain to form a receptor complex that is required for the regulation of Dvl and activation of the AP-1 promoter after Wnt5a stimulation. Suppressed expression of Fz7 indeed results in the inhibition of Wnt5a-induced polymerization of Dvl and AP-1 activation. Interestingly, both the DIX and the DEP domains of Dvl are indispensable for Dvl polymerization and subsequent AP-1 activation after Wnt5a stimulation. We further show that polymerized Dvl is colocalized with Rac1 and that suppressed expression of Rac1 inhibits Wnt5a-induced AP-1 activation. Collectively, our results indicate that Ror2/Fz receptor complex plays an important role in the Wnt5a/Rac1/AP-1 pathway by regulating the polymerization of Dvl. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Villacorte M.,Wakayama Medical University | Villacorte M.,Kumamoto University | Suzuki K.,Wakayama Medical University | Suzuki K.,Kumamoto University | And 12 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2013

The Wnt/β-catenin signaling is essential for various organogenesis and is often implicated during tumorigenesis. Dysregulated β-catenin signaling is associated with the formation of endometrial adenocarcinomas (EACs), which is considered as the common form of endometrial cancer in women. In the current study, we investigate the downstream target of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the uterine epithelia and the mechanism leading to the formation of endometrial hyperplasia. We report that conditional ablation and activation of β-catenin in the uterine epithelia lead to aberrant epithelial structures and endometrial hyperplasia formation, respectively. We demonstrate that β-catenin regulates Foxa2 with its candidate upstream region for the uterine epithelia. Furthermore, knockdown of Foxa2 leads to defects in cell cycle regulation, suggesting a possible function of Foxa2 in the control of cell proliferation. We also observe that β-catenin and Foxa2 expression levels are augmented in the human specimens of complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia, which is considered to have a greater risk of progression to EACs. Thus, our study indicates that β-catenin regulates Foxa2 expression, and this interaction is possibly essential to control cell cycle progression during endometrial hyperplasia formation. Altogether, the augmented expression levels of β-catenin and Foxa2 are essential features during the formation of endometrial hyperplasia. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

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