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van der Linden L.,Radboud University Nijmegen | van der Linden L.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | Vives-Adrian L.,Institute Of Biologia Molecular Of Barcelona Csic | Selisko B.,Aix - Marseille University | And 22 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2015

The genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae contains many important human pathogens (e.g., poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, and enterovirus 71) for which no antiviral drugs are available. The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is an attractive target for antiviral therapy. Nucleoside-based inhibitors have broad-spectrum activity but often exhibit off-target effects. Most non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNIs) target surface cavities, which are structurally more flexible than the nucleotide-binding pocket, and hence have a more narrow spectrum of activity and are more prone to resistance development. Here, we report a novel NNI, GPC-N114 (2,2'-[(4-chloro-1,2-phenylene)bis(oxy)]bis(5-nitro-benzonitrile)) with broad-spectrum activity against enteroviruses and cardioviruses (another genus in the picornavirus family). Surprisingly, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and poliovirus displayed a high genetic barrier to resistance against GPC-N114. By contrast, EMCV, a cardiovirus, rapidly acquired resistance due to mutations in 3Dpol. In vitro polymerase activity assays showed that GPC-N114 i) inhibited the elongation activity of recombinant CVB3 and EMCV 3Dpol, (ii) had reduced activity against EMCV 3Dpol with the resistance mutations, and (iii) was most efficient in inhibiting 3Dpol when added before the RNA template-primer duplex. Elucidation of a crystal structure of the inhibitor bound to CVB3 3Dpol confirmed the RNA-binding channel as the target for GPC-N114. Docking studies of the compound into the crystal structures of the compound-resistant EMCV 3Dpol mutants suggested that the resistant phenotype is due to subtle changes that interfere with the binding of GPC-N114 but not of the RNA template-primer. In conclusion, this study presents the first NNI that targets the RNA template channel of the picornavirus polymerase and identifies a new pocket that can be used for the design of broad-spectrum inhibitors. Moreover, this study provides important new insight into the plasticity of picornavirus polymerases at the template binding site. © 2015 van der Linden et al.


PubMed | University Utrecht, Institute Of Biologia Molecular Of Barcelona Csic, Pennsylvania State University, Aix - Marseille University and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS pathogens | Year: 2015

The genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae contains many important human pathogens (e.g., poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, and enterovirus 71) for which no antiviral drugs are available. The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is an attractive target for antiviral therapy. Nucleoside-based inhibitors have broad-spectrum activity but often exhibit off-target effects. Most non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNIs) target surface cavities, which are structurally more flexible than the nucleotide-binding pocket, and hence have a more narrow spectrum of activity and are more prone to resistance development. Here, we report a novel NNI, GPC-N114 (2,2-[(4-chloro-1,2-phenylene)bis(oxy)]bis(5-nitro-benzonitrile)) with broad-spectrum activity against enteroviruses and cardioviruses (another genus in the picornavirus family). Surprisingly, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and poliovirus displayed a high genetic barrier to resistance against GPC-N114. By contrast, EMCV, a cardiovirus, rapidly acquired resistance due to mutations in 3Dpol. In vitro polymerase activity assays showed that GPC-N114 i) inhibited the elongation activity of recombinant CVB3 and EMCV 3Dpol, (ii) had reduced activity against EMCV 3Dpol with the resistance mutations, and (iii) was most efficient in inhibiting 3Dpol when added before the RNA template-primer duplex. Elucidation of a crystal structure of the inhibitor bound to CVB3 3Dpol confirmed the RNA-binding channel as the target for GPC-N114. Docking studies of the compound into the crystal structures of the compound-resistant EMCV 3Dpol mutants suggested that the resistant phenotype is due to subtle changes that interfere with the binding of GPC-N114 but not of the RNA template-primer. In conclusion, this study presents the first NNI that targets the RNA template channel of the picornavirus polymerase and identifies a new pocket that can be used for the design of broad-spectrum inhibitors. Moreover, this study provides important new insight into the plasticity of picornavirus polymerases at the template binding site.


Krecmerova M.,Czech Institute of Organic Chemistry And Biochemistry | Jansa P.,Czech Institute of Organic Chemistry And Biochemistry | Dracinsky M.,Czech Institute of Organic Chemistry And Biochemistry | Sazelova P.,Czech Institute of Organic Chemistry And Biochemistry | And 8 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

New large-scale synthetic approach to antiretroviral agent 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-2,6-diaminopurine, (R)-PMPDAP, was developed. Reaction of (R)-propanediol carbonate with 2,6-diaminopurine afforded exclusively (R)-9-(2-hydroxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine which was subsequently used for introduction of a phosphonomethyl residue using TsOCH 2P(O)(OiPr)2 or BrCH2P(O)(OiPr)2 followed by deprotection of ester groups. All minor ingredients and by-products formed during the process were identified and further studied. The final product was obtained in high yield and its high enantiomeric purity (>99%) was confirmed by chiral capillary electrophoretic analysis using β-cyclodextrin as a chiral selector. Antiretroviral activity data of (R)-PMPDAP and its diverse prodrugs against HIV and FIV were investigated. Akin to (R)-PMPDAP, both prodrugs inhibit FIV replication in a selective manner. Compared to the parent molecule, the amidate prodrug was 10-fold less active against FIV in cell culture, whereas the alkoxyalkyl ester prodrug was 200-fold more potent in inhibiting FIV replication in vitro. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Castermans D.,Institute of Botany and Microbiology | Somers I.,Institute of Botany and Microbiology | Kriel J.,Institute of Botany and Microbiology | Louwet W.,Institute of Botany and Microbiology | And 5 more authors.
Cell Research | Year: 2012

The protein phosphatases PP2A and PP1 are major regulators of a variety of cellular processes in yeast and other eukaryotes. Here, we reveal that both enzymes are direct targets of glucose sensing. Addition of glucose to glucose-deprived yeast cells triggered rapid posttranslational activation of both PP2A and PP1. Glucose activation of PP2A is controlled by regulatory subunits Rts1, Cdc55, Rrd1 and Rrd2. It is associated with rapid carboxymethylation of the catalytic subunits, which is necessary but not sufficient for activation. Glucose activation of PP1 was fully dependent on regulatory subunits Reg1 and Shp1. Absence of Gac1, Glc8, Reg2 or Red1 partially reduced activation while Pig1 and Pig2 inhibited activation. Full activation of PP2A and PP1 was also dependent on subunits classically considered to belong to the other phosphatase. PP2A activation was dependent on PP1 subunits Reg1 and Shp1 while PP1 activation was dependent on PP2A subunit Rts1. Rts1 interacted with both Pph21 and Glc7 under different conditions and these interactions were Reg1 dependent. Reg1-Glc7 interaction is responsible for PP1 involvement in the main glucose repression pathway and we show that deletion of Shp1 also causes strong derepression of the invertase gene SUC2. Deletion of the PP2A subunits Pph21 and Pph22, Rrd1 and Rrd2, specifically enhanced the derepression level of SUC2, indicating that PP2A counteracts SUC2 derepression. Interestingly, the effect of the regulatory subunit Rts1 was consistent with its role as a subunit of both PP2A and PP1, affecting derepression and repression of SUC2, respectively. We also show that abolished phosphatase activation, except by reg1Δ, does not completely block Snf1 dephosphorylation after addition of glucose. Finally, we show that glucose activation of the cAMP-PKA (protein kinase A) pathway is required for glucose activation of both PP2A and PP1. Our results provide novel insight into the complex regulatory role of these two major protein phosphatases in glucose regulation. © 2012 IBCB, SIBS, CAS All rights reserved.


Ribbens S.,Ghent University | Goris N.,Okapi science N.V. | Neyts J.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | Dewulf J.,Ghent University
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

Classical swine fever (CSF) outbreaks may result in huge economic losses to countries with densely populated pig areas (DPLAs). The EU minimum control measures require depopulation of infected farms, movement restrictions, zoning and surveillance (EU Minimum strategy). Emergency vaccination is authorised for DPLAs although the EU Minimum strategy plus culling in a 1-km ring around infected premises is preferred. Nonetheless, vaccination in a 2-km ring has been found equally effective as 1-km ring culling using stochastic modelling. Alternatives control measures (e.g. antiviral agents, in particular small molecule inhibitors of the CSFV replication) are being explored. Hence, the present study was set up to simulate inter-herd CSFV spread when antiviral molecules are supplemented to pig feed in a 1-km ring around infected farms. The effectiveness of the antiviral strategy for containing CSF outbreaks was compared to six other control scenarios including the EU Minimum strategy, the EU preferred policy for DPLAs and the use of 2-km ring vaccination. The InterSpread Plus model was adapted to the 2006 Belgian pig population and outbreak simulations were performed with a fast spreading CSFV strain entering a DPLA in Belgium. Four out of the seven control strategies resulted in outbreaks that were controlled by the end of the simulation period (i.e. 365 days). The distributions of the number of infected herds and the duration of the predicted outbreaks for these four control strategies were not different. This is the first report investigating CSF outbreak containment using antiviral molecules. Although antiviral supplementation was not found to perform any better than some other conventional strategies, such as pre-emptive culling and emergency vaccination, it might be worthwhile considering it further as additional tool in a response to CSF outbreaks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Osiceanu A.-M.,Okapi science NV | Murao L.E.,Okapi science NV | Kollanur D.,Okapi science NV | Swinnen J.,Okapi science NV | And 6 more authors.
Antiviral Research | Year: 2014

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly pathogenic member of the genus Aphthovirus (family Picornaviridae) that is only to be manipulated in high-containment facilities, thus complicating research on and discovery of antiviral strategies against the virus. Bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) and equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV), phylogenetically most closely related to FMDV, were explored as surrogates for FMDV in antiviral studies. Although no efficient cell culture system has been reported so far for BRBV, we demonstrate that infection of primary bovine kidney cells resulted in an extensive but rather poorly-reproducible induction of cytopathic effect (CPE). Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells on the other hand supported viral replication in the absence of CPE. Antiviral tests were developed for ERAV in Vero A cells employing a viral RNA-reduction assay and CPE-reduction assay; the latter having a Z' factor of 0.83 ± 0.07. The BRBV and ERAV models were next used to assess the anti-aphthovirus activity of two broad-spectrum antiviral agents 2′-C-methylcytidine (2CMC) and ribavirin, as well as of the enterovirus-specific inhibitor enviroxime. The effects of the three compounds in the CPE-reduction (ERAV) and viral RNA-reduction assays (BRBV and ERAV) were comparable. Akin to 2CMC, compound A, a recently-discovered non-nucleoside pan-serotype FMDV inhibitor, also inhibited the replication of both BRBV and ERAV, whereas enviroxime was devoid of activity. The BRBV and ERAV surrogate models reported here can be manipulated in BSL-2 laboratories and may facilitate studies to unravel the mechanism of action of novel FMDV inhibitors. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Backer J.A.,Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR | Vrancken R.,Okapi science NV | Neyts J.,Okapi science NV | Neyts J.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | Goris N.,Okapi science NV
Antiviral Research | Year: 2013

Classical swine fever (CSF) represents a continuous threat to pig populations that are free of disease without vaccination. When CSF virus is introduced, the minimal control strategy imposed by the EU is often insufficient to mitigate the epidemic. Additional measures such as preemptive culling encounter ethical objections, whereas emergency vaccination leads to prolonged export restrictions. Antiviral agents, however, provide instantaneous protection without inducing an antibody response. The use of antiviral agents to contain CSF epidemics is studied with a model describing within- and between-herd virus transmission. Epidemics are simulated in a densely populated livestock area in The Netherlands, with farms of varying sizes and pig types (finishers, piglets and sows).Our results show that vaccination and/or antiviral treatment in a 2. km radius around an infected herd is more effective than preemptive culling in a 1 km radius. However, the instantaneous but temporary protection provided by antiviral treatment is slightly less effective than the delayed but long-lasting protection offered by vaccination. Therefore, the most effective control strategy is to vaccinate animals when allowed (finishers and piglets) and to treat with antiviral agents when vaccination is prohibited (sows). As independent control measure, antiviral treatment in a 1. km radius presents an elevated risk of epidemics running out of control. A 2. km control radius largely eliminates this risk. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Lefebvre D.J.,Coda Research | De Vleeschauwer A.R.,Coda Research | Goris N.,Okapi science N.V. | Kollanur D.,Okapi science N.V. | And 5 more authors.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases | Year: 2014

Summary: Recent European contingency plans envisage emergency vaccination as an animal-friendly control strategy for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Anti-viral drugs may be used as an alternative or complementary measure. We here demonstrate that the nucleoside analogue 2'-C-methylcytidine (2'CMC) protects severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice against lethal FMD virus infection. In brief, SCID mice were inoculated with serotype A FMD virus and treated for five consecutive days with 2'CMC. All 15 treated mice remained healthy until the end of the study at 14 days post-infection (dpi). At that time, viral RNA was no longer detected in 13 of 15 treated mice. All eight untreated mice suffered from an acute generalized disease and were euthanized for ethical reasons on average at 4 dpi. These results illustrate the potential of small molecules to control FMD. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


PubMed | Coda Research, Okapi science NV and Rega Institute for Medical Research
Type: | Journal: Antiviral research | Year: 2014

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly pathogenic member of the genus Aphthovirus (family Picornaviridae) that is only to be manipulated in high-containment facilities, thus complicating research on and discovery of antiviral strategies against the virus. Bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) and equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV), phylogenetically most closely related to FMDV, were explored as surrogates for FMDV in antiviral studies. Although no efficient cell culture system has been reported so far for BRBV, we demonstrate that infection of primary bovine kidney cells resulted in an extensive but rather poorly-reproducible induction of cytopathic effect (CPE). Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells on the other hand supported viral replication in the absence of CPE. Antiviral tests were developed for ERAV in Vero A cells employing a viral RNA-reduction assay and CPE-reduction assay; the latter having a Z factor of 0.830.07. The BRBV and ERAV models were next used to assess the anti-aphthovirus activity of two broad-spectrum antiviral agents 2-C-methylcytidine (2CMC) and ribavirin, as well as of the enterovirus-specific inhibitor enviroxime. The effects of the three compounds in the CPE-reduction (ERAV) and viral RNA-reduction assays (BRBV and ERAV) were comparable. Akin to 2CMC, compound A, a recently-discovered non-nucleoside pan-serotype FMDV inhibitor, also inhibited the replication of both BRBV and ERAV, whereas enviroxime was devoid of activity. The BRBV and ERAV surrogate models reported here can be manipulated in BSL-2 laboratories and may facilitate studies to unravel the mechanism of action of novel FMDV inhibitors.

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