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Penticton, Canada

Day T.,Okanagan College
Progress in Physical Geography | Year: 2012

Like other disciplines, physical geography has seen substantial recent interest in research on ways to improve undergraduate teaching and learning. Most of this research has taken place in a constructivist framework in which students construct knowledge in ways that are meaningful to them. Constructivist theory forms the basis for a wide range of active learning approaches, such as inquiry-based learning and problem-based learning. These approaches are inductive in that students build theory and generalizations from case studies rather than more traditional approaches in which the students learn the theory and then study some examples. Students are typically more engaged in their active learning than they are in traditional approaches, but the impacts of the newer approaches on student learning are unclear. Experiential and service learning, together with fieldwork, offer considerable organizational challenges, but the learning rewards are clear and unchallenged. Attempts to replace fieldwork with virtual field trips have met with resistance, but there has been little research on the ways that virtual fieldwork could be improved. Introductory physical geography textbooks have failed to keep up with changes in teaching the subject, although there have been some recent innovations that offer promise. Animations in particular seem to engage students, although there is no evidence that they enhance the learning of physical geography. The nature of the relationship between research and teaching continues to fascinate, yet eludes clarification. The scholarship of teaching and learning physical geography offers challenges and opportunities for new and experienced faculty who have not previously published in this field. © The Author(s) 2012.


Rayne S.,Ecologica Research | Forest K.,Okanagan College
Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data | Year: 2011

Gas phase (298.15 K, 101.325 kPa) adiabatic ionization energies (AIEs) were calculated for 236 organic compounds with the Gaussian-4 (G4) composite method and for 17 molecules at the W1BD level of theory. Functional group types considered span a range of mono- and polyfunctionalized halogenated, saturated and unsaturated, cyclic and acyclic, and heteroatom (N, O, S) substituted moieties without substantial conformational complexity. Excellent agreement was found using both computational methods against available experimental data. Approximately equivalent AIE prediction accuracy was observed between the G4 and the W1BD methods. For compounds with well-constrained experimental AIEs, both levels of theory provide effective chemical accuracy. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Rayne S.,Ecologica Research | Forest K.,Okanagan College
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2010

A set of 543 ionizable commercial organic compounds with various acid/base functionalities and experimental octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log Kow) were obtained from the Canadian Domestic Substances List. Corresponding pH-dependent octanol-water distribution coefficients (log D ow) and air-water partitioning coeffients (log Kaw,eff ) were estimated using the SPARC software program, as were log Kow and log K aw values for the neutral forms of each chemical. Significant ionization dependent effects on chemical screening results at various pH values were obtained using established criteria for bioaccumulation potential (BAP) in aquatic organisms, terrestrial animals, and humans, as well as for atmospheric long range transport potential (LRTP). Future modelling efforts for environmental and toxicological screening of commercial chemicals should therefore explicitly include the influence of ionization for both weak and strong organic acids and bases on bioavailability and air-water mobility within the respective regulatory frameworks. Functional group specific sorption of both ionizable and neutral compounds to particulate and dissolved inorganic and organic matter will also affect chemical screening results for BAP and LRTP. More complex sorption related modelling in various types of representative aquatic systems also appears necessary to achieve reliable chemical screening results for commercial organic compounds. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Rayne S.,Ecologica Research | Forest K.,Okanagan College
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2010

The SPARC software program aqueous pKa prediction module was validated against corresponding experimental acidity constants for chlorinated and brominated phenols and the limited experimental aqueous pKa data sets for monohydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (OH-PCDEs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). pKa values were then estimated for all 837 monohydroxylated mono- through nona-halogenated congeners in each of the OH-PCB, OH-PCDE, and OH-PBDE classes, as well as for the monohydroxylated polybrominated biphenyls (OH-PBBs), giving a total of 3348 compounds. Large intrahomolog pKa variation by up to six units is expected within each contaminant class, with pKa values ranging from about 4 to 11 dependent on the degree and pattern of halogenation. Increasing halogenation generally decreased the average pKa within each homolog group. Significant intrahomolog differences in pKa values exist between OH-PCB, OH-PBB, OH-PCDE, and OH-PBDE congeners, including large acidity constant variation between isomers with equivalent halogenation patterns but varying location of the hydroxy moiety. Congener specific pH dependent investigations into the partitioning and degradation behaviors of these compounds are necessary, including greater consideration of analyte ionization effects during their extraction and analysis. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Warner R.,Okanagan College
Environmental Politics | Year: 2010

The literature on ecological modernisation (EM) is reviewed from a critical political ecology viewpoint. Critical political ecology is centrally concerned with how change in industrial societies occurs. Does the EM literature presently offer a theory of ecopolitical change that is both coherent and relevant to the contexts prevailing today in industrialised countries? Two strands in the EM literature are discussed: the functional and socio-political accounts of change. From the perspective of critical political ecology, EM thinking does not provide an ethically or politically coherent argument for more radical change. The possibilities for elaborating a more nuanced 'post-EM' account of ecopolitical change that incorporates a politics of conflict and an expansion of the scope of politics itself are evaluated. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

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