Kashihara, Japan
Kashihara, Japan

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Ohe T.,Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Yoshimura Y.,Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Shimada Y.,Okamura Oil Mill Co.
Sen'i Gakkaishi | Year: 2014

Chrome tanned leather sheets could be colored in an aqueous solution containing reducing sugars, similar to the coloration of various foods containing both protein and reducing sugars, by the Maillard reaction. The obtained sheets showed yellowish or brownish color. Further reaction conditions, such as reaction time, temperature, and types of reducing sugar, were also investigated in this paper, where it was clear that their long reactions at the high temperatures (>95 °C) caused not only their deep coloration, such as dark brown, but also their serious contraction owing to thermal denaturation of their protein.


Nagao T.,Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Watanabe Y.,Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Tanaka S.,Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Shizuma M.,Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Shimada Y.,Okamura Oil Mill Co.
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2012

Arachidonyl alcohol rarely occurs in natural oils. It can be used as a substrate for production of several ether lipids possessing beneficial functions. Although arachidonyl alcohol has been produced on a laboratory scale by the chemical reduction of arachidonic acid, it will be difficult to scale up this process for industrial application. The aim of this study was to develop a new bioprocess for converting arachidonic acid to arachidonyl alcohol. Screening was conducted using 11 wax ester- (esters of fatty acids and fatty alcohols) producing strains reported in our previous study, and a single-cell oil containing arachidonic acid. A new strain, Acinetobacter species N-476-2, most effectively converted arachidonic acid to arachidonyl alcohol, which accumulated inside the cells as a wax ester. GC-MS, FT-IR, and NMR analyses showed that this strain reduced the carboxyl group of 5-cis,8-cis,11-cis,14-cis-arachidonic acid to a hydroxyl group without altering the position or configuration of the double bonds; the product was identified as 5-cis,8-cis,11-cis,14-cis- arachidonyl alcohol. A time-course study of cultivation showed that the amount of arachidonyl alcohol produced by the strain after 4 days was 2.2 mg/mL culture. The bioprocess using Acinetobacter sp. N-476-2 can be applied to the large-scale production of arachidonyl alcohol. © 2012 AOCS.


Kobayashi T.,Kyoto University | Nagao T.,Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Watanabe Y.,Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Shimada Y.,Okamura Oil Mill Ltd
Journal of Oleo Science | Year: 2011

Commercially available conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of two main isomers. Fractionation of the two isomers was performed by a lipase-catalyzed esterifi cation of CLA with L-menthol. In this study, a GC analytical method was developed to simultaneously determine the degree of esterifi cation and fatty acid (FA) compositions of CLA in the free fatty acid (FFA) and ester forms without separation of the FFA and the ester. The methylation of the oil phase of the reaction mixture was performed using trimethylsilyldiazomethane in a mixture of toluene/methanol. Only FFA was quantitatively methylated, whereas the other compounds were little changed. A GC analysis using a polar column was performed to simultaneously determine the degree of esterifi cation and the fatty acid compositions. © 2011 by Japan Oil Chemists' Society.


Ohe T.,Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Moriyoshi K.,Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Ohmoto T.,Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Yoshimura Y.,Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Shimada Y.,Okamura Oil Mill Co.
Sen'i Gakkaishi | Year: 2015

In our previous studies, the polyamide materials, such as wool, silk, nylon 6, and tanned leather, were colored in a water solution containing reducing sugars, similar to the brownish coloration of various foods containing both protein and reducing sugars, and these coloration reactions are called Maillard reaction. Interestingly, the obtained color materials or their related materials give foods not only color but also distinctive flavor, anti-oxidative capacity, and anti-bacterial activity. In this paper, anti-bacterial properties of the polyamide fibers colored by the Maillard reaction were investigated using conventional methods of JIS L 1902. As a result, polyamide fibers reacted with xylose, one of reducing sugars, showed very strong anti-bacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, such as S. aureus, E. coli, and so on. However, a clear relationship between the color concentration of these fibers and their anti-bacterial properties was not observed.


Nagao T.,Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Watanabe Y.,Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Nakano H.,Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Shimada Y.,Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Shimada Y.,Okamura Oil Mill Co.
Current Organic Chemistry | Year: 2013

The most remarkable difference between a chemical reaction and a lipase reaction is the fact that lipase possesses several substrate specificities, in particular, fatty acid specificity on hydrolysis, esterification, or transesterification reaction of the ester bond. Several lipases act weakly on polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid. Through fatty acid specificity of lipases, a DHA-rich oil (acylglycerols) has been industrially produced from tuna oil. Lipase specificity also facilitates purification of PUFAs, conjugated linoleic acid isomers, tocopherols, and sterol esters and production of triacylglycerol that is DHA-rich at the sn-1(3) position. Microorganism-mediated processes using Aeromonas hydrophila N-6 are effective for production of rare unsaturated fatty acids and rare unsaturated fatty alcohols from several vegetable oils. These lipids are rarely observed in natural oils. We also demonstrate that Acinetobacter sp. N-476-2 effectively converts functional arachidonic acid to functional arachidonyl alcohol, which can be used as a substrate for medicine. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

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