Oita Prefectural Institute of Health and Environment

Ōita-shi, Japan

Oita Prefectural Institute of Health and Environment

Ōita-shi, Japan
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PubMed | Oita Prefectural Institute of Health and Environment, Pharmaceutical and Environmental science Center, Okayama Prefectural Institute for Public Health and Environmental Science, Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Consumer science and 13 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of infectious diseases | Year: 2015

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a tick-borne acute infectious disease caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV). SFTS has been reported in China, South Korea, and Japan as a novel Bunyavirus. Although several molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic studies have been performed, the information obtained was limited, because the analyses included no or only a small number of SFTSV strains from Japan.The nucleotide sequences of 75 SFTSV samples in Japan were newly determined directly from the patients serum samples. In addition, the sequences of 7 strains isolated in vitro were determined and compared with those in the patients serum samples. More than 90 strains that were identified in China, 1 strain in South Korea, and 50 strains in Japan were phylogenetically analyzed.The viruses were clustered into 2 clades, which were consistent with the geographic distribution. Three strains identified in Japan were clustered in the Chinese clade, and 4 strains identified in China and 26 in South Korea were clustered in the Japanese clade.Two clades of SFTSV may have evolved separately over time. On rare occasions, the viruses were transmitted overseas to the region in which viruses of the other clade were prevalent.


PubMed | Oita Prefectural Institute of Health and Environment, Kumamoto Prefectural Meat Inspection Office, University of Miyazaki, Toyama Institute of Health and 13 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Open forum infectious diseases | Year: 2015

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 infection causes severe diseases such as bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Although EHEC O157:H7 strains have exhibited high genetic variability, their abilities to cause human diseases have not been fully examined.Clade typing and stx subtyping of EHEC O157:H7 strains, which were isolated in Japan during 1999-2011 from 269 HUS patients and 387 asymptomatic carriers (ACs) and showed distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, were performed to determine relationships between specific lineages and clinical presentation.Clades 6 and 8 strains were more frequently found among the isolates from HUS cases than those from ACs (P = .00062 for clade 6, P < .0001 for clade 8). All clade 6 strains isolated from HUS patients harbored stx2a and/or stx2c, whereas all clade 8 strains harbored either stx2a or stx2a/stx2c. However, clade 7 strains were predominantly found among the AC isolates but less frequently found among the HUS isolates, suggesting a significant association between clade 7 and AC (P < .0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that 0-9 year old age is a significant predictor of the association between clade 8 and HUS. We also found an intact norV gene, which encodes for a nitric oxide reductase that inhibits Shiga toxin activity under anaerobic condition, in all clades 1-3 isolates but not in clades 4-8 isolates.Early detection of EHEC O157:H7 strains that belonged to clades 6/8 and harbored specific stx subtypes may be important for defining the risk of disease progression in EHEC-infected 0- to 9-year-old children.


Murakami K.,Fukuoka Institute of Health Environmental | Etoh Y.,Fukuoka Institute of Health Environmental | Ichihara S.,Fukuoka Institute of Health Environmental | Maeda E.,Fukuoka Institute of Health Environmental | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

An increasing number of Shiga toxin 2f-producing Escherichia coli (STEC2f) infections in humans are being reported in Europe, and pigeons have been suggested as a reservoir for the pathogen. In Japan, there is very little information regarding carriage of STEC2f by pigeons, prompting the need for further investigation. We collected 549 samples of pigeon droppings from 14 locations in Kyushu, Japan, to isolate STEC2f and to investigate characteristics of the isolates. Shiga toxin stx2f gene fragments were detected by PCR in 16 (2.9%) of the 549 dropping samples across four of the 14 locations. We obtained 23 STEC2f-isolates from seven of the original samples and from three pigeon dropping samples collected in an additional sampling experiment (from a total of seven locations across both sampling periods). Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics were then examined for selected isolates from each of 10 samples with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. Eight of the stx 2f gene fragments sequenced in this study were homologous to others that were identified in Europe. Some isolates also contained virulence-related genes, including lpfAO26, irp2, and fyuA, and all of the 10 selected isolates maintained the eae, astA, and cdt genes. Moreover, five of the 10 selected isolates contained sfpA, a gene that is restricted to Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O165:H2 and sorbitol-fermenting Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:NM. We document serotypes O152:HNM, O128:HNM, and O145:H34 as STEC2f, which agrees with previous studies on pigeons and humans. Interestingly, O119:H21 was newly described as STEC2f. O145:H34, with sequence type 722, was described in a German study in humans and was also isolated in the current study. These results revealed that Japanese zoonotic STEC2f strains harboring several virulence-related factors may be of the same clonal complexes as some European strains. These findings provide useful information for public health-related disease management strategies in Japan. © 2014 Murakami et al.


Ikebe T.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Tominaga K.,Yamaguchi Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environment | Shima T.,Toyama Institute of Health | Okuno R.,Japan National Institute of Public Health | And 10 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2015

Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe invasive infection characterized by the sudden onset of shock, multi-organ failure, and high mortality. In Japan, appropriate notification measures based on the Infectious Disease Control law are mandatory for cases of STSS caused by β-haemolytic streptococcus. STSS is mainly caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). Although an average of 60-70 cases of GAS-induced STSS are reported annually, 143 cases were recorded in 2011. To determine the reason behind this marked increase, we characterized the emm genotype of 249 GAS isolates from STSS patients in Japan from 2010 to 2012 and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The predominant genotype was found to be emm1, followed by emm89, emm12, emm28, emm3, and emm90. These six genotypes constituted more than 90% of the STSS isolates. The number of emm1, emm89, emm12, and emm28 isolates increased concomitantly with the increase in the total number of STSS cases. In particular, the number of mefA-positive emm1 isolates has escalated since 2011. Thus, the increase in the incidence of STSS can be attributed to an increase in the number of cases associated with specific genotypes. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014.


PubMed | Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Toyama Institute of Health, Fukushima Institute of Public Health, Japan National Institute of Public Health and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Epidemiology and infection | Year: 2015

Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe invasive infection characterized by the sudden onset of shock, multi-organ failure, and high mortality. In Japan, appropriate notification measures based on the Infectious Disease Control law are mandatory for cases of STSS caused by -haemolytic streptococcus. STSS is mainly caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). Although an average of 60-70 cases of GAS-induced STSS are reported annually, 143 cases were recorded in 2011. To determine the reason behind this marked increase, we characterized the emm genotype of 249 GAS isolates from STSS patients in Japan from 2010 to 2012 and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The predominant genotype was found to be emm1, followed by emm89, emm12, emm28, emm3, and emm90. These six genotypes constituted more than 90% of the STSS isolates. The number of emm1, emm89, emm12, and emm28 isolates increased concomitantly with the increase in the total number of STSS cases. In particular, the number of mefA-positive emm1 isolates has escalated since 2011. Thus, the increase in the incidence of STSS can be attributed to an increase in the number of cases associated with specific genotypes.


Hasegawa A.,University of Tokyo | Hara-Kudo Y.,University of Tokyo | Hara-Kudo Y.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Ogata K.,Oita Prefectural Institute of Health and Environment | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2013

To investigate the diversity of stress tolerance levels in Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 200 V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from various coastal environments, seafood, and human clinical cases were exposed to acid, low-osmolality, freezing-thawing, and heat stresses. Tolerance against acid stress was higher in the virulent (tdh- and/or trh-positive) strains than in the avirulent (tdh- and trh-negative) strains. Tolerance against low-osmolality, freezing-thawing, and heat stresses was higher in the clinical strains of tdh- and/or trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus than in the coastal environment- and seafood-originated strains of tdhand/or trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus. Tolerance against acid stress was higher in the strains isolated from coastal seawater at ≤5°C than in the strains isolated at ≥20°C. Tolerance against heat stress was higher in the avirulent strains than the virulent strains, and in the strains isolated from coastal seawater at ≥20°C than the strains isolated from coastal seawater at ≤15°C. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the diversity of stress tolerance levels in V. parahaemolyticus strains depended on their source and whether they harbored virulence genes. In particular, there was significantly greater tolerance against acid in the virulence gene-harboring strains and strains isolated from low-temperature seawater. Because the stress tolerances of V. parahaemolyticus have direct influences for the survival in environment and food, it is important for the prevention of foodborne infection to control the stress-tolerant strains. Copyright © International Association for Food Protection.


Narimatsu H.,Oita Prefectural Institute of Health and Environment | Narimatsu H.,Oita University | Ogata K.,Oita Prefectural Institute of Health and Environment | Makino Y.,Oita University | Ito K.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2010

The relationship to diarrhea of genes located on the pathogenicity islands (PAI) other than the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) was investigated. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the retention of espC on the EspC PAI, the OI-122 genes (efa1/lifA, nleB), the phylogenetic marker gene yjaA, and the bundle-forming pilus gene bfpA on the EPEC adherence factor (EAF) plasmid were studied. E. coli strains carrying the intimin gene (eae) without the Shiga toxin gene, isolated from patients with diarrhea (n = 83) and healthy individuals (n = 38) in Japan, were evaluated using PCR. The genotypes of eae and espC were identified by heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA). The proportions of strains isolated from individuals with and without diarrhea that carried these genes were as follows: bfpA, 13.3 and 7.9%, respectively; espC, 25.3 and 36.8%; efa1/lifA, 32.5 and 13.2%; nleB, 63.9 and 60.5%; yjaA, 42.2 and 55.3%. Statistical significance (P < 0.05) was achieved only for efa1/lifA. The proportion of strains lacking espC and carrying efa1/lifA was higher for patient-derived strains (30.1%) than for strains from healthy individuals (13.2%), but the difference was not significant. Strains carrying both espC and efa1/lifA were rare (2 strains from patients). Statistical analyses revealed significant relationships between espC and yjaA and between efa1/lifA and nleB, as well as significant inverse relationships between espC and efa1/lifA and between efa1/lifA and yjaA. espC was found in eae HMA types a1, a2, and c2, whereas efa1/lifA was found in types b1, b2, and c1. In addition, 6 polymorphisms of espC were found. The espC, yjaA, efa1/lifA, and nleB genes were mutually dependent, and their distributions were related to eae type, findings that should be considered in future epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Ogata K.,Oita Prefectural Institute of Health and Environment | Ogata K.,University of Occupational and Environmental Health Japan | Narimatsu H.,Oita Prefectural Institute of Health and Environment | Suzuki M.,Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health | And 3 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection has been increasing; however, the sources of infection remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of meat as a possible mediator of CA-MRSA infection.Weexamined the distribution ofMRSAstrains in commercially distributed raw meat samples (n=197) and diarrheal stool samples of outpatients (n=1,287) that were collected in Oita Prefecture, Japan, between 2003 and 2009 for routine legal inspections. FourteenMRSAstrains were isolated from three meat and 11 stool samples. Among these, seven isolates from three meat and four stool samples exhibited the same epidemiological marker profiles [coagulase type III, staphylococcal enterotoxin C, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type IV, ST8, spa type 606 (t1767), and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) producing type]. Furthermore, of the seven strains, three isolates from two meat samples and one stool sample collected in 2007 exhibited completely identical characteristics with respect to phage open reading frame (ORF) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and drug susceptibility profiles. The results suggest that commercially distributed meat could play a role in the prevalence of CA-MRSA in the community. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


Tang W.-F.,Oita University | Ogawa M.,Oita Prefectural Institute of Health and Environment | Eshita Y.,Oita University | Aono H.,Oita University | Makino Y.,Oita University
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

In order to identify the patterns of genetic change of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strains circulating in Oita, the complete envelope (E) gene has been sequenced for 35 isolates from swine in a 30-year span. Based on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences, the genetic variation was examined, phylogeny was estimated and selection pressures were also analyzed. This study demonstrated that the major genotype (G) of JEV isolates had shifted from GIII to GI in the mid-1990s in Oita. The intensities of selection acting on the Oita GIII and GI strains were found to be almost same. It suggests that the intensity of selection might not be the reason for such a genotype shift observed in Oita. Pairwise comparisons revealed the high conservation of the E gene at the protein level. Compared with the Oita GIII strains, all the Oita GI strains shared four amino acid changes at E129 (T-M), E222 (A-S), E327 (S-T) and E366 (A-S). Among all 70 JEV isolates involved in this paper, the GI strains shared only one amino acid change at E222 (A-S) in comparison with the GIII strains. No strong evidence for positive selection was found, the JEV evolution has generally been subject to strong purifying selection, but one ongoing evolutionary pathway was found to be under relaxed purifying selection in Oita. This study is a localized example of JEV molecular evolution in nature. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Oita Prefectural Institute of Health and Environment
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied and environmental microbiology | Year: 2012

The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection has been increasing; however, the sources of infection remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of meat as a possible mediator of CA-MRSA infection. We examined the distribution of MRSA strains in commercially distributed raw meat samples (n = 197) and diarrheal stool samples of outpatients (n = 1,287) that were collected in Oita Prefecture, Japan, between 2003 and 2009 for routine legal inspections. Fourteen MRSA strains were isolated from three meat and 11 stool samples. Among these, seven isolates from three meat and four stool samples exhibited the same epidemiological marker profiles [coagulase type III, staphylococcal enterotoxin C, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type IV, ST8, spa type 606 (t1767), and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) producing type]. Furthermore, of the seven strains, three isolates from two meat samples and one stool sample collected in 2007 exhibited completely identical characteristics with respect to phage open reading frame (ORF) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and drug susceptibility profiles. The results suggest that commercially distributed meat could play a role in the prevalence of CA-MRSA in the community.

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