Evaluation of screening methods for bruchid beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis) resistance in Greengram (Vigna radiata) and Blackgram (Vigna mungo) genotypes and influence of seed physical characteristics on its infestation
Ponnusamy D.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research |
Ponnusamy D.,Oilseeds Research |
Pratap A.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research |
Pratap A.,Oilseeds Research |
And 4 more authors.
Vegetos | Year: 2014
Bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) cause substantial reduction in quantity and quality of legumes during storage in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. C. chinensis is the most important bruchid in Asia and causes considerable damage to Vigna seeds. Four hundred seventy five accessions of two Vigna species, [335 of Vigna radiata (greengram) and 140 of Vigna mungo (blackgram)] were initially evaluated for resistance to bruchid beetle through ‘free choice’ test. Eight greengram and nine blackgram resistant accessions were further evaluated under lab conditions using ‘no choice’ test. Four greengram accessions (LM 131, V 1123, LM 371 and STY 2633) were found moderately resistant with less percentage survival (38.9 to 51.6%) and prolonged developmental period (30.5 to 31.5 days) as compared to susceptible check (90.8% survival and 26.1 days of developmental period). Similarly in blackgram, three accessions (UH 82-5, IC 8219 and SPS 143) were moderately resistant with less percentage survival (33.7 to 42.0%) and prolonged developmental period (26.8 to 28.1 days) as compared to susceptible check (83.2% survival and developmental period of 24.2 days). Physical characteristics of the seeds were related with the ovipositional preference of the bruchid. In greengram, lesser number of eggs were recorded in small and shiny seeds as compared to large and dull seeds while in blackgram, small and black seeds recorded lower number of eggs as compared to large and green seeds. In this study, ‘no choice’ test seemed to be most reliable and potentially useful for screening of bruchid resistance. Since, no cultivated germplasm exhibited complete resistance, the moderately resistant genotypes identified in the present study hold promise in breeding programme of greengram and blackgram. © 2014, Society for Plant Research. All Rights Reserved.
Johnson T.S.,Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd |
Badri J.,The Academy of Management |
Sastry R.K.,The Academy of Management |
Shrivastava A.,The Academy of Management |
And 2 more authors.
Recent Patents on DNA and Gene Sequences | Year: 2013
Due to depleting reserves of fossil fuels, political uncertainties, increase in demand of energy needs and growing concerns of environmental effects, bioenergy as an alternative source of energy needs had taken centre stage globally. In this report, we review the progress made in lignocellulose, cellulose and fermentation based biofuels in addition to tree borne oil seeds. Algae as a source of feedstock for the biofuel has also been reviewed. Recent efforts in genome sequencing of biofuel crops and molecular breeding approaches have increased our understanding towards crop improvement of major feedstocks. Besides, patenting trends in bioenergy sector were assessed by patent landscape analysis. The results showed an increasing trend in published patents during the last decade which is maximum during 2011. A conceptual framework of "transgenesis in biofuels to industrial application" was developed based on the patent analytics viz., International Patent Classification (IPC) analysis and Theme Maps. A detailed claim analysis based on the conceptual framework assessed the patenting trends that provided an exhaustive dimension of the technology. The study emphasizes the current thrust in bioenergy sector by various public and private institutions to expedite the process of biofuel production. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.
Rajasri M.,Seed Research and Technology Center |
Malathi V.,Oilseeds Research |
Sujatha M.,Oilseeds Research |
Vijaya Lakshmi K.,ARI Inc |
Prasada Rao R.D.V.J.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources NBPGR
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011
Tomato leaf curl virus transmitted by whitefly, Bemisia tabaci is a serious viral disease of tomato causing epidemics in different states of the Indian subcontinent. Transmission studies of ToLCV with viruliferous whitefly adults in popular tomato cultivars of Andhra Pradesh, India proved that B. tabaci successfully transmitted the ToLCV disease and a single adult whitefly can transmit the disease to an extent of 20% and maximum transmission of 100% was obtained with 15 adults/plant. Bipartite geminivirus infecting tomatoes in Andhra Pradesh, South India were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Products derived from Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) were cloned and sequenced. ToLCV sample of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh shared a maximum identity of 93% with three Indian ToLCV strains viz., TOLCNDV-AVT1 from New Delhi (AY428769), ToLCNDV-Svr (U15015) and ToLCNDV-Chilli (EU309045). The complete nucleotide sequence of the Hyderabad sample was identified and found to be identical to Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) strain when it was compared with other ToLCV known sequences through BLAST analysis in the NCBI Genbank.
Duraimurugan P.,Oilseeds Research |
Sampathkumar M.,Rice Research |
Srinivas P.S.,Oilseeds Research
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2015
Female calling behaviour and electrophysiological response of male to pheromone gland extracts of castor semilooper, Achaea janata L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. Adult emergence occurred only at scotophase period with maximum of 58% male and 53% female moths during 6th and 7th hour of scotophase. Females exhibited a characteristic calling posture by extruding the pheromone gland from the tip of the abdomen. Both female age and time in the scotophase significantly influenced calling. Calling initiated during second scotophase and maximum calling occurred during fourth scotophase (66.7%). Most of the female calling (41.8%) occurred during 9th hour of the scotophase. Extracts of female pheromone gland assayed in electroantennogram elicited hyper sensitive reaction in male moths with a response of -2.745 mV. The present study gives detailed information on the behavioural biology of A. janata and optimal time for the pheromone extraction, which could facilitate exploiting pheromone technology for the monitoring and mass trapping of this pest in castor. © 2015, World Food Ltd. and WFL Publishers. All rights reserved.
Sunil N.,Winter Nursery Center |
Kumar V.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics |
Abraham B.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources |
Sivaraj N.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources |
Varaprasad K.S.,Oilseeds Research
Thai Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2014
Diverse germplasm accessions of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) collected from different eco-geographical regions of South India were studied for differential branching pattern involving branching angles between the Main and Primary branches (M-P), primary and secondary (P-S) and secondary and tertiary (S-T). Correlation of the various branching angles, contributing to the tree structure, with other agro-morphological traits viz. number of primary branches, canopy spread, pedicel length, number of fruit clusters and yield was studied. Significant correlation was recorded for branch angle of 750-950 between M-P branches for plant height and bole length. An angle of 60-750 between primary to secondary (P-S) branches had highly significant correlation with bole length. S-T branch angle ranging between 60-750 had significant correlation with plant height, bole length and yield. Accession, IC541688 (with branch angle 77.50 between M-P, 61.60 for P-S and 48.30 for S-T) and IC544654 (710 between M-P, 550 between P-S and 480 between S-T) recorded high yield. The results showed that branching pattern as a tool for identification of promising genotypes may be effective.
Qureshi A.A.,Onion and Garlic Research |
Qureshi A.A.,Oilseeds Research |
Lawande K.E.,Onion and Garlic Research |
Mani S.,Onion and Garlic Research |
Patil V.B.,Onion and Garlic Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012
The above investigation revealed that quercetin content varied spatially in the bulb portions as well as in the rings of short-day Indian onions. It was high in top portion of bulb or in the outer rings. Dark coloured bulbs had greater amounts of quercetin in comparison to white bulbs. These findings would provide essential information for majority of people in India, South Asia and Gulf who consume onion in salads about the coloured bulbs that it contains more quercetin levels. Hence, consumption of coloured bulbs particularly the top portion or outer rings is more beneficial in meeting the dietary requirement of quercetin, which is an essential health compound.
Kammili A.,Oilseeds Research |
Raoof M.A.,Oilseeds Research
Plant Breeding | Year: 2014
Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is an important industrial oilseed crop grown worldwide. Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ricini is a devastating disease in castor. The inheritance mode of wilt resistance was investigated. The F1, F2 and backcross generations of four crosses involving four resistant and three susceptible parents were developed. The role of digenic (R1 and R2) epistatic interactions on wilt resistance was confirmed. The 15 : 1, 9 : 7 and 13 : 3 ratios indicated duplicate dominant, duplicate recessive and dominant and recessive epistatic interactions, respectively. Castor parents used in the crosses exhibited varied inheritance modes. All generations of a cross exhibited similar inheritance mode when parents were comparable. However, generations varied in inheritance mode when parents were not comparable in inheritance mode. These results would have practical interest when decisions are required regarding the choice of parents and methodology in resistance and hybrid breeding. The results also provided a basis for investigating molecular genetics of wilt resistance mechanisms. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Sujatha M.,Oilseeds Research |
Visarada K.B.R.S.,Sorghum Research
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013
Particle bombardment/biolistic delivery is a very popular method of genetic transformation of diverse targets including cells and intact tissues. Delivery of DNA through particle bombardment is genotype and species independent, nevertheless, an efficient protocol for large-scale generation of transgenic plants through embryogenic tissues with a high (≥80%) shoot regeneration efficiency is a prerequisite. Young embryogenic tissues or multiple shoot buds in early stages of induction are the most suited target tissues for recovery of transgenic plants. We describe the protocol for delivery of foreign genes using particle delivery system (Biorad gene gun, PDS-1000/He) in to the meristematic tissues of embryonic axes derived from mature seeds of castor. With the optimized physical and biological parameters, putative transformants were obtained at a frequency of 1.4% through particle gun bombardment of castor embryo axes. Also, transformation of embryogenic calli of sorghum using particle inflow gun (PIG) is described. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Murthy I.Y.L.N.,Oilseeds Research |
Alivelu K.,Oilseeds Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013
Five statistical models, linear response and plateau (LRP), quadratic response and plateau (QRP), logistic, quadratic and square root were compared to describe castor seed yield response to phosphate fertilization under irrigated conditions of Junagadh and S K Nagar regions. Adjusted R2 values explained the variability in castor seed yield response to P fertilization, but the optimum phosphorus (Pop) values calculated by these models varied greatly. Overall the QRP followed by LRP model fitted the data with less bias than the other models, and calculated Pop values for Junagadh and S K Nagar (37.1 and 25.6 kg/ha respectively) were comparable with the P doses reported in literature.
Meena H.P.,Oilseeds Research |
Sujatha M.,Oilseeds Research |
Varaprasad K.S.,Oilseeds Research
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2013
Heterosis breeding has been commercially exploited in sunflower and is expected to enhance productivity further. This is the only crop which has more than 80% sunflower growing area under the hybrids. The first hybrid (BSH-1) of sunflower from public sector was released for commercial cultivation in 1980. Since then the hybrid breeding program has been quite successful and 29 productive hybrids were developed by both public (18) and private sectors (11). Inspite of these successes, problems in the form of stagnating and unstable yields, genetic vulnerability and susceptibility to various diseases are threatening sunflower productivity in India. One of the major challenges would be to develop newer hybrids for diverse situation and superior to those presently grown in terms of seed and oil yield in order to sustain the competitive ability of sunflower vis-avis other crops. There is a need for new CMS lines with diverse cytoplasm having several desirable attributes like dwarfness and early maturity. The diverse CMS lines are expected to contribute towards the development of superior hybrids producing high seed yield and oil content with better heterosis and stability. The CMS base exploited in the sunflower breeding programmes is narrow and there is an urgent need for widening the CMS and restorer (R) line base for enhancing the productivity and production of sunflower.