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Montoya C.,Oil Palm Research Center Cenipalma | Lopes R.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | Flori A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Cros D.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 15 more authors.
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2013

We chose an Elaeis interspecific pseudo-backcross of first generation (E. oleifera × E. guineensis) × E. guineensis to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fatty acid composition of palm oil. A dense microsatellite linkage map of 362 loci spanned 1.485 cM, representing the 16 pairs of homologous chromosomes in the Elaeis genus from which we traced segregating alleles from both E. oleifera and E. guineensis grandparents. The relative linear orders of mapped loci suggested the probable absence of chromosome rearrangements between the E. oleifera and E. guineensis genomes. A total of 19 QTL associated to the palm oil fatty acid composition were evidenced. The QTL positions and the species origin as well as the estimated effects of the QTL marker alleles were in coherence with the knowledge of the oil biosynthesis pathway in plants and with the individual phenotypic correlations between the traits. The mapping of chosen Elaeis key genes related to oleic acid C18:1, using intra-gene SNPs, supported several QTLs underlying notably FATA and SAD enzymes. The high number of hyper-variable SSR loci of known relative linear orders and the QTL information make these resources valuable for such mapping study in other Elaeis breeding materials. © 2013 The Author(s).

Cadena T.,Industrial University of Santander | Prada F.,Oil Palm Research Center Cenipalma | Perea A.,Industrial University of Santander | Romero H.M.,Oil Palm Research Center Cenipalma | Romero H.M.,National University of Colombia
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

Background: One factor affecting crude palm oil quality is the formation of free fatty acids (FFA), often attributed to the hydrolytic action of mesocarp lipase. The aim of this work was to evaluate the enzyme behavior and to look toward new genotypes with low FFA production, high yield, and better oil quality. Results: Lipase activity was strongly activated at low temperatures (5 °C). At this temperature PLL, SOO, POL, and POO (P, palmitic; L, linoleic; S, stearic; O, oleic) were the most hydrolyzed triacylglycerols in Elaeis guineensis fruits. Ethylene production decreased from 36 nL g-1 h-1 at room temperature to 2 nL g-1 h-1 at 5 °C. Lipase activity of E. guineensis, the E. oleifera × E. guineensis (O×G) hybrid, and E. oleifera were 52.7%, 32.9%, and <0.6% FFA, respectively. The E. guineensis showed oil in the mesocarp of 54.7%, followed by the O×G hybrid (47.0%), and E. oleifera (13.6%), and the iodine values were 52.0, 66.3, and 77.4 g I2 100 g-1, respectively. Conclusions: This work allowed the identification of interspecific O×G hybrids as promising crosses with less lipase activity and higher iodine value than E. guineensis. Although O×G crosses produce less oil in the mesocarp than commercial E. guineensis; this feature could be improved by further breeding to introduce new genes from E. oleifera into the hybrids. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

Prada F.,Oil Palm Research Center Cenipalma | Ayala-Diaz I.M.,Oil Palm Research Center Cenipalma | Delgado W.,National University of Colombia | Ruiz-Romero R.,Oil Palm Research Center Cenipalma | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

A series of physical and chemical changes occur as oil palm fruits ripen in the bunch. We evaluated changes in lipid content in the mesocarp and fruits, and the chemical composition of fatty acids (FA), triacylglycerol (TAG), tocols, and carotenes of the lipids extracted from fruits of three commercial tenera cultivars, namely, Deli × La Mé, Deli × Ekona, and Deli × Avros, planted in two different geographical regions in Colombia, during the ripening process 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 weeks after anthesis (WAA). It was found that 12 WAA the mesocarp contained less than 6% of total lipids. Oil content increased rapidly after 16 WAA, reaching the maximum oil content of 55% in fresh mesocarp and 47% in fresh fruits at 22 WAA, which was found the optimal time for harvesting. Changes in FA and TAG showed that total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and triunsaturated triacylglycerols (TUTAG) decreased, while total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and disaturated triacylglycerols (DSTAG) increased, over the ripening period. Changes in FA were mainly observed in palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids, and in POP, POO, POL, and OLL for the TAGs evaluated. Levels of tocols changed depending on whether they were tocopherols or tocotrienols. In the earliest stages tocopherols were predominant but decreased rapidly from 6600 mg kg -1 of oil at 14 WAA to 93 mg kg -1 of oil at 22 WAA. Tocotrienols appeared at the same time as oil synthesis started, and became the main source of total tocols, equivalent to 87% in total lipids extracted. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

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