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Avila-Diazgranados R.A.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Daza E.S.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Navia E.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Romero H.M.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Romero H.M.,National University of Colombia
Agronomia Colombiana | Year: 2016

Palms planted in an area with a high bud rot disease (BR) inoculum pressure were evaluated monthly for a six-year period to determine their tolerance, resistance, or susceptibility to the disease. Dura-type E. guineensis and OxG (E. oleifera × E. guineensis) interspecific hybrids Coari × La Me were evaluated. Of the two types of genetic material evaluated, the progenies of the E. guineensis palms showed the highest levels of incidence, reaching 90% affected palms in less than two years of evaluation. Although the hybrids showed susceptibility, they had a lower degree of affectation than the dura-type palms. The severity assessment of both genetic materials showed that the dura-type palms had the highest degree of affectation, reaching the highest values after over two years of evaluation. However, the hybrids, which were not homogeneous in terms of the level of severity, did not exceed, on average, severity level 2. According to the scale, severity level 2 is indicative of tolerance to the disease. © 2016, Universidad Nacional de Colombia1. All Rights Reserved. Source

Moreno-Chacon A.L.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Camperos-Reyes J.E.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Avila Diazgranados R.A.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Romero H.M.,National University of Colombia
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

In recent years, global consumption of palm oil has increased significantly, reaching almost 43 million tons in 2010. The sustainability of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) cultivation has been compromised because of the bud rot disease whose initial symptoms are caused by Phytophthora palmivora. There was a significant incidence of the disease, from an initial stage 1 of the disease to the highest stage 5, that affected photosynthetic parameters, content of pigments, sugars, polyamines, enzymatic antioxidant activities, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC and β-(1,3) glucanase (β-Gluc, EC In healthy palms photosynthesis was 13.29μmol CO2m-2s-1 in average, while in stage 5 the average photosynthesis was around 3.66μmol CO2m-2s-1. Additionally, total chlorophyll was reduced by half at the last stage of the disease. On the contrary, the contents of putrescine, spermine and spermidine increased three, nine and twelve times with respect to stage 5, respectively. Antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and β-(1,3) glucanase showed an increase as the severity of the disease increased, with the latter increasing from 0.71 EAU in healthy palms to 2.60 EAU in plants at stage 5 of the disease. The peroxidase (POD, EC enzymatic activity and the content of spermidine were the most sensitive indicators of disease. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Arias D.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Montoya C.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Romero H.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Romero H.,National University of Colombia
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2013

The narrow genetic base of existing commercial oil palm cultivars has prompted oil palm breeders to give increased importance to augmenting these genetic resources because the sustainable development of the crop depends largely on the availability of genetic diversity and its use. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to conduct a molecular characterization of an ex situ collection of oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq. populations from the Republic of Cameroon using microsatellite molecular markers. Overall, 31 simple sequence repeats were polymorphic, with a total of 223 alleles, 78.4% of which were found at low frequency. The total genetic diversity was relatively high (H T= 0.673). The genetic differentiation between geographical regions was low (G ST= 0.023, P= 0.001), and between families it was high (G ST= 0.166, P= 0.001), showing greater variation between families than among geographical regions. The molecular data indicate that genetic diversity among the genotypes evaluated is mainly distributed within regions, suggesting that there is no isolation by geographical distance and that all the sampled individuals form a single diverse population. Therefore, it was concluded that a relatively low number of accessions (120 in the analysed case) that includes at least one representative of each family would allow us to efficiently collect almost the entire genetic diversity of Cameroon within the collection studied. This will allow for the efficient use of genetic resources and a reduction in morpho-agronomic characterization costs. Copyright © 2013 NIAB. Source

Navia E.A.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Avila R.A.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Daza E.E.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Restrepo E.F.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Bud rot (BR), caused by Phytophthora palmivora, is one of the most devastating diseases affecting oil palm. It has destroyed oil palm plantations in countries throughout Latin America. To assess their resistance to BR, two cultivars of African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and two interspecific OxG (E. oleifera × E. guineensis Coari × La Mé and Coari × Pobè) hybrids were planted under field conditions in a plantation with a strong presence of BR. Incidence and severity data were recorded for 1812 days from the date of planting; the disease index was estimated, and progress curves were constructed and adjusted to monomolecular, logistic and Gompertz models. Severity progression and incidence progression rates for each cultivar were estimated using a simple linear regression. Statistical comparisons of the parameters were performed using Student's t-tests. Survival analyses were performed for each of the cultivars. Log-rank statistics were used to compare the responses of the cultivars to BR. Severity progression in the interspecific hybrids was significantly slower than that in the E. guineensis cultivars. No statistically significant differences were found in the progression rates among the hybrids; however, the survival analysis did show statistically significant differences. The Coari × Pobè hybrid had the longest survival time. Considering that partial resistance does not prevent plants from becoming infected but does slow disease progression, the two evaluated hybrids may have commercially valuable levels of resistance. © 2014, Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging. Source

Rincon S.M.,Processing Research Program | Hormaza P.A.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Moreno L.P.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Prada F.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | And 3 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Oil palm is the major source of vegetable oil in the world. Traditionally, African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has been used for industrial production, however, in the last few years the interspecific hybrid OxG, a cross between the E. guineensis and the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera Cortes has emerged as a new alternative for oil palm production, mainly due to the high quality of the oil and the apparent resistance of the hybrid to some of the most problematic diseases. The last is especially true in Latin America where cultivation of oil palm is under pressure from various pests and diseases, particularly the bud rot and lethal wilt, which are a constraint to the sustainability of the crop. However, these interspecific hybrids have problems with fruit filling and ripening due to poor natural pollination and because the flower bud opening is asynchronous. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the optimal harvest time so as to ensure obtaining fruits with the greatest possible amount of oil and with the highest standards of quality. This research identified various physiological, physicochemical and quality parameters to establish the optimal harvest time for fruit bunches. To standardize the optimal harvest time, regardless of the region of cultivation or hybrid used, the different stages of oil palm fruit development were analyzed in accordance with the BBCH phenological scale. The results showed that the optimal harvest time for fruit bunches of OxG interspecific hybrid material (Coari. ×. La Mé) corresponds to the phenological stage 807. The highest values of oil content (21.6%), the lowest free fatty acid values (<1%) and better concentration of phytonutrients were obtained at this stage. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.. Source

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