Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program

Bogotá, Colombia

Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program

Bogotá, Colombia
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Rivera-Mendez Y.D.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Rodriguez D.T.,Processing Research Program | Romero H.M.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Romero H.M.,National University of Colombia
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2017

Oil palm is the major source of vegetable oil in the world, produced mainly by Malaysia and Indonesia. Colombia is the second largest producer outside Southeast Asia and the largest producer in South and Central America. The expansion of oil palm crop in Colombia has a great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, because it is planted in areas covered by low biomass vegetation. The first step for reducing these greenhouse gas emissions is to quantify them, and the carbon footprint is the algebraic sum of the greenhouse gas sequestration and emissions caused directly or indirectly by an individual, organization or product for a defined period of time. For that, the objective of this study was to determine the carbon footprint of the crop stage, i.e of production of oil palm fresh fruit bunches in an experimental field, representative of a well managed plantation in Colombia. Following the Colombian Technical Standard NTC 6000, one ton of oil palm fresh fruit bunches was established as a functional unit; inputs, activities and processes directly or indirectly involved in the production of oil palm fresh fruit bunches were inventoried, and the carbon footprint balance between sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions was estimated using the Ecoinvent database and emission factors of the SimaPro 7.0 software. CO2 capture by the crop was higher than greenhouse gas emissions associated: for each ton of oil palm fresh fruit bunches produced, 606 kg of CO2 were fixed. N2O was the most significant greenhouse gas emitted during the crop stage, and the activities in descending order that contributed most to the greenhouse gas emissions were the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers, transport of bunches to the processing plant, land use change and the energy used in transport and tractor traction. Since carbon footprint is a benchmark for internal management or mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, a mitigation plan was drawn up to improve the carbon balance, by increasing the use of organic fertilizers: planting oil palms on degraded land or with low biomass accumulation; using oil palm biodiesel as a substitute for fossil fuels; improving the yield of oil palm fresh fruit bunches through increased production efficiency; and by producing biochar at the time of replanting. These integrated strategies that in descending order have different effects into the carbon balance could increase the eco-efficiency of the oil palm in terms of carbon sequestration for Colombian oil palm agribusiness. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Arias D.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Ochoa I.,Breeding and Seed Production Program of Unipalma S.A. Cumaral | Castro F.,Breeding and Seed Production Program of Unipalma S.A. Cumaral | Romero H.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Romero H.,National University of Colombia
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2014

Sustainable development of a breeding programme depends on having sufficient genetic variability to achieve genetic gains in each selection cycle. The aim of this study was to molecularly characterize families of the oil palm, Elaeis guineensis Jacq., of different origins using microsatellite molecular markers. The value of the observed heterozygosity was higher than that of the expected heterozygosity in all of the progenies. The coefficients (G ST= 0.207 and F ST= 0.174) and AMOVA showed genotypic differences among the evaluated families. Likewise, this was reflected in the groups obtained by the dendrogram and principal coordinate analyses. This difference could have evolved due to the enrichment of some of the families with germplasm from different origins. Therefore, genetic relationships estimated from molecular data would be convenient to select families more distant from each group and palms more distant from each family selected to reserve genetic variability. This information will guide us in the decision-making process when planning breeding programmes focused on crosses to develop new populations with an acceptable broad genetic base and adaptability. In this way, sources of resistance to biotic and abiotic factors can be identified for the development of new varieties with competitive advantages for the sector. © 2014 NIAB.


Rincon S.M.,Processing Research Program | Hormaza P.A.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Moreno L.P.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Prada F.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | And 3 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Oil palm is the major source of vegetable oil in the world. Traditionally, African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has been used for industrial production, however, in the last few years the interspecific hybrid OxG, a cross between the E. guineensis and the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera Cortes has emerged as a new alternative for oil palm production, mainly due to the high quality of the oil and the apparent resistance of the hybrid to some of the most problematic diseases. The last is especially true in Latin America where cultivation of oil palm is under pressure from various pests and diseases, particularly the bud rot and lethal wilt, which are a constraint to the sustainability of the crop. However, these interspecific hybrids have problems with fruit filling and ripening due to poor natural pollination and because the flower bud opening is asynchronous. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the optimal harvest time so as to ensure obtaining fruits with the greatest possible amount of oil and with the highest standards of quality. This research identified various physiological, physicochemical and quality parameters to establish the optimal harvest time for fruit bunches. To standardize the optimal harvest time, regardless of the region of cultivation or hybrid used, the different stages of oil palm fruit development were analyzed in accordance with the BBCH phenological scale. The results showed that the optimal harvest time for fruit bunches of OxG interspecific hybrid material (Coari. ×. La Mé) corresponds to the phenological stage 807. The highest values of oil content (21.6%), the lowest free fatty acid values (<1%) and better concentration of phytonutrients were obtained at this stage. © 2013 Elsevier B.V..


Arias D.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Gonzalez M.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Prada F.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Ayala-Diaz I.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | And 4 more authors.
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2015

Elaeis oleifera has become a valuable genetic resource for the production of interspecific hybrids of E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés × Elaeis guineensis Jacq. to address plant disease problems affecting oil palm cultivation. In this study, we evaluated the phenotypic and genetic diversity of accessions of E. oleifera from different countries in South America using morpho-agronomic traits and microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeats, SSRs). Analyses of variance for yield and bunch components demonstrated statistically significant differences among countries and geographical regions for several of the traits evaluated. SSR marker analyses revealed high genetic diversity (HT = 0.797) and the presence of specific alleles by each country of origin from E. oleifera. The clustering topology obtained showed four distinguishable E. oleifera groups, which matched the geographical distribution of the accessions and thus exhibited a high genetic differentiation (GST = 0.512) and a low gene flow Nm = 0.238 among countries. The results enabled us to demonstrate that E. oleifera has a specific genetic structure and a phenotypic variability with different characteristics between origins, and the accessions from each country of origin contributed to the increase in total genetic diversity. A core collection was defined based on the accuracy of the classification of individuals with respect to their country of origin. The information reported in this study will be of great interest to oil palm researchers because new strategies for breeding programs can be developed based on these advances. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Avila-Diazgranados R.A.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Daza E.S.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Navia E.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Romero H.M.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Romero H.M.,National University of Colombia
Agronomia Colombiana | Year: 2016

Palms planted in an area with a high bud rot disease (BR) inoculum pressure were evaluated monthly for a six-year period to determine their tolerance, resistance, or susceptibility to the disease. Dura-type E. guineensis and OxG (E. oleifera × E. guineensis) interspecific hybrids Coari × La Me were evaluated. Of the two types of genetic material evaluated, the progenies of the E. guineensis palms showed the highest levels of incidence, reaching 90% affected palms in less than two years of evaluation. Although the hybrids showed susceptibility, they had a lower degree of affectation than the dura-type palms. The severity assessment of both genetic materials showed that the dura-type palms had the highest degree of affectation, reaching the highest values after over two years of evaluation. However, the hybrids, which were not homogeneous in terms of the level of severity, did not exceed, on average, severity level 2. According to the scale, severity level 2 is indicative of tolerance to the disease. © 2016, Universidad Nacional de Colombia1. All Rights Reserved.


Moreno-Chacon A.L.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Camperos-Reyes J.E.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Avila Diazgranados R.A.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Romero H.M.,National University of Colombia
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

In recent years, global consumption of palm oil has increased significantly, reaching almost 43 million tons in 2010. The sustainability of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) cultivation has been compromised because of the bud rot disease whose initial symptoms are caused by Phytophthora palmivora. There was a significant incidence of the disease, from an initial stage 1 of the disease to the highest stage 5, that affected photosynthetic parameters, content of pigments, sugars, polyamines, enzymatic antioxidant activities, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) and β-(1,3) glucanase (β-Gluc, EC 3.2.1.39). In healthy palms photosynthesis was 13.29μmol CO2m-2s-1 in average, while in stage 5 the average photosynthesis was around 3.66μmol CO2m-2s-1. Additionally, total chlorophyll was reduced by half at the last stage of the disease. On the contrary, the contents of putrescine, spermine and spermidine increased three, nine and twelve times with respect to stage 5, respectively. Antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and β-(1,3) glucanase showed an increase as the severity of the disease increased, with the latter increasing from 0.71 EAU in healthy palms to 2.60 EAU in plants at stage 5 of the disease. The peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) enzymatic activity and the content of spermidine were the most sensitive indicators of disease. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Arias D.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Montoya C.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Romero H.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Romero H.,National University of Colombia
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2013

The narrow genetic base of existing commercial oil palm cultivars has prompted oil palm breeders to give increased importance to augmenting these genetic resources because the sustainable development of the crop depends largely on the availability of genetic diversity and its use. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to conduct a molecular characterization of an ex situ collection of oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq. populations from the Republic of Cameroon using microsatellite molecular markers. Overall, 31 simple sequence repeats were polymorphic, with a total of 223 alleles, 78.4% of which were found at low frequency. The total genetic diversity was relatively high (H T= 0.673). The genetic differentiation between geographical regions was low (G ST= 0.023, P= 0.001), and between families it was high (G ST= 0.166, P= 0.001), showing greater variation between families than among geographical regions. The molecular data indicate that genetic diversity among the genotypes evaluated is mainly distributed within regions, suggesting that there is no isolation by geographical distance and that all the sampled individuals form a single diverse population. Therefore, it was concluded that a relatively low number of accessions (120 in the analysed case) that includes at least one representative of each family would allow us to efficiently collect almost the entire genetic diversity of Cameroon within the collection studied. This will allow for the efficient use of genetic resources and a reduction in morpho-agronomic characterization costs. Copyright © 2013 NIAB.


Navia E.A.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Avila R.A.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Daza E.E.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | Restrepo E.F.,Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Bud rot (BR), caused by Phytophthora palmivora, is one of the most devastating diseases affecting oil palm. It has destroyed oil palm plantations in countries throughout Latin America. To assess their resistance to BR, two cultivars of African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and two interspecific OxG (E. oleifera × E. guineensis Coari × La Mé and Coari × Pobè) hybrids were planted under field conditions in a plantation with a strong presence of BR. Incidence and severity data were recorded for 1812 days from the date of planting; the disease index was estimated, and progress curves were constructed and adjusted to monomolecular, logistic and Gompertz models. Severity progression and incidence progression rates for each cultivar were estimated using a simple linear regression. Statistical comparisons of the parameters were performed using Student's t-tests. Survival analyses were performed for each of the cultivars. Log-rank statistics were used to compare the responses of the cultivars to BR. Severity progression in the interspecific hybrids was significantly slower than that in the E. guineensis cultivars. No statistically significant differences were found in the progression rates among the hybrids; however, the survival analysis did show statistically significant differences. The Coari × Pobè hybrid had the longest survival time. Considering that partial resistance does not prevent plants from becoming infected but does slow disease progression, the two evaluated hybrids may have commercially valuable levels of resistance. © 2014, Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging.

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