Oil and Gas Institute

Lubicz Górny, Poland

Oil and Gas Institute

Lubicz Górny, Poland
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Stepien Z.,Oil and Gas Institute
MATEC Web of Conferences | Year: 2017

The article describes external and internal Common Rail injectors deposits formed in dynamometer engine simulation tests. It discussed not only the key reasons and factors influencing injector deposit formation but also the resulting way of fuel preparation and engine test approaches. The effects of external coking deposit as well as internal deposits two most common form types that is carboxylic soaps and organic amides on deterioration of the fuel injection parameters were assessed. The assessments covered both deposits impacts on quantitative and qualitative changes of the injectors diagnostic parameters and as a result on deterioration of the injector performance. Finally the comparisons between characteristic of dosage of one fuel injector before test and characteristics few injectors after engine tests of simulated deposit formation were made. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

Steliga T.,Gas Technology Institute | Jakubowicz P.,Gas Technology Institute | Kapusta P.,Oil and Gas Institute
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

Bioremediation of weathered drill wastes severely contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) (90,000-170,000mgkg-1) and BTEX (51.2-95.5mgkg-1) to soil standards was achieved over a 3-year period in three phases: initial remediation, basic bioremediation and inoculation with a biopreparation. Fourteen non-pathogenic indigenous bacteria species belonging mainly to the Actinomycetales were identified and shown to be able to degrade 63-75% of nC9-nC20, 36-51% of nC21-nC36, 36% of BTEX and 20% of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). Addition of five non-pathogenic fungi species to the bacterial consortium allowed degradation of 69-89% of nC9-nC20, 47-80% of nC21-nC36, 76% of BTEX, and 68% of PAHs. Microtox, Ostacodtoxkit, Phytotoxkit and Ames tests indicated that changes in toxicity were not connected with the decrease in TPH contents, possibly due to the formation of toxic indirect metabolites during bioremediation. No toxicity was found in the soil after bioremediation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Jeczmionek L.,Oil and Gas Institute | Porzycka-Semczuk K.,Cracow University of Technology
Fuel | Year: 2013

Initial results for the zeoforming of triglycerides from rapeseed oil and their application for the production of second generation biocomponents were described. It was found that the cloud points of the hydroraffinates obtained from a kerosene (boiling range 160-245 C) and zeoformed rapeseed oil feedstock were lower (by several degrees Centigrade) than those of the hydroraffinates obtained from the unmodified rapeseed oil. This phenomenon was caused by the modification of fatty acid triglyceride structures by isomerisation of the fatty acid chains. The obtained results indicate that zeoforming may be an interesting solution for improving the low temperature properties of second generation biocomponents obtained from natural oils and/or fats by hydroconversion and co-processing. A complete understanding of the zeoforming mechanism for fatty acid triglycerides requires further research. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The presented work covers theoretical considerations regarding the total heat effects associated with vegetable oil hydroconversion to form n-paraffinic diesel fuel biocomponents relative to the process conditions. The hydroconversion of fatty acid triglycerides is a highly exothermic process. The hydrodeoxygenation, decarboxylation and decarbonylation of fatty acids are the basic reactions occurring during this process. The hydrodeoxygenation and decarboxylation reactions are exothermic, while decarbonylation exhibits a relatively modest endothermic effect. A similar situation applies to the secondary reactions: rWGSR - reverse water gas shift reaction (endothermic) and CO methanation (strongly exothermic). The contribution of each reaction depends on the process conditions, particularly the hydrogen pressure. Theoretical considerations suggest that the total heat effect in the reactor should be similar under different pressure conditions. The heat effects connected to a particular hydroconversion reaction (main and secondary) may compensate one another. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Two paraffinic feedstocks containing 20 vol.% of significantly different vegetable oils (olive or corn oil) were subjected to hydroconversion over a commercial NiMo catalyst under two different pressures (3.0 or 6.0 MPa), at 320 °C, with liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 1.0 h-1 and hydrogen/feedstock ratio equal to 300 N m3/m3. Changes in the hydroconversion pressure significantly affect the contribution of the major (hydrodeoxygenation, decarboxylation and decarbonylation) and secondary reactions (strongly exothermic methanation and endothermic reverse water gas shift reaction (rWGSR)). Nevertheless, the total heat effect in the reactor did not differ significantly. The heat effects changed noticeably when different vegetable oils were used as feedstocks. It was found that the differences in the total heat effects noted during hydroconversion for the two vegetable oils depend on the unsaturated fatty acid contents. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zapalski M.K.,University of Warsaw | Dohnalik M.,Oil and Gas Institute
Lethaia | Year: 2013

X-ray microtomography (XMT) is a non-invasive and non-destructive method that has often been used to study fossils. It allows serial sections to be made as little as few micrometers apart; such a resolution is unachievable for classical serial sectioning; moreover, in contrast to the latter, the specimen is not destroyed. Microtomography can, however, be applied only in cases where differences in X-ray absorption between the skeleton and its infilling are great. We show that this method may be also applied to tabulate corals. Case studies of blastogeny are based on Silurian (Aulopora, Favosites) and Devonian (Thamnopora) specimens from Poland. We show that the sequence of events in the blastogeny of Aulopora sp. is different from that of 'Aulopora serpens minor' from the Devonian of the Holy Cross Mountains and similar to auloporids from the Devonian of England. Blastogeny in Favosites is very similar to that known from the related genera Squameofavosites and Thamnopora. This suggests that members of the genus Aulopora may be more diversified within the genus (as presently understood) than genera within the Favositidae. © 2012 The Authors, Lethaia © 2012 The Lethaia Foundation.

Jeczmionek L.,Oil and Gas Institute | Krasodomski W.,Oil and Gas Institute
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2015

This work describes research conducted on the zeoforming process of rapeseed oil and using zeoformat as a feedstock for hydroconversion process leading to hydrocarbon fuel biocomponents. The raw rapeseed oil and the products, including the zeoformat of the raw rapeseed oil and the hydroraffinate of the raw rapeseed oil zeoformat, were examined using 1H NMR techniques to confirm the occurrence of the oligomerization of fatty acids. Based on the tests performed, it was determined that, during the zeoforming of the vegetable oil, partial decomposition processes occurred in the triglycerides. Monoglycerides, diglycerides, and carboxylic acids were formed, followed by the occurrence of oligomerization processes that led to the creation of both branched aliphatic structures and aromatic structures, which were most likely benzene rings substituted with diverse functional groups. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Jeczmionek L.,Oil and Gas Institute
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2014

This publication presents the results of research concerning an improvement of low-temperature properties of HVO paraffinic biocomponents by utilizing zeoformed waste natural oils. The process was performed using a special zeolite catalyst based on the hydrogen form of the ZSM-5 zeolites. This method is generally recognized as a new approach for obtaining low-temperature performance improvements of the HVO biocomponents.

Steliga T.,Oil and Gas Institute
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2012

Petroleum substances are the main source of pollutants stored in old waste pits. They cause degradation of biological life in the area of storage. The aim of this article is to present laboratory research on petroleum pollutant biodegradation. The hydrocarbon contaminants in old drilling wastes came from the Graby-19 waste pit. The tests included basic bioremediation and inoculation with a biopreparation based on non-pathogenic species of bacteria and fungi, which were identified in molecular research. Multicriteria effectiveness estimation of petroleum pollutant biodegradation in the tested wastes enabled determination of a role of fungi in this process. Biopreparation enrichment was done in the final phase with non-pathogenic fungi isolated from the waste during purification. As a result, an increase in long-chain n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbon (BTEX and PAH) biodegradation was observed. Biodegradation rate constants for petroleum hydrocarbons, calculated on the basis of a mathematical model, can serve as proof of fungi usage in the bioremediation process.

Steliga T.,Oil and Gas Institute
Archives of Environmental Protection | Year: 2011

Petroleum products are complex mixture of compounds of varied biological properties. They can cause harmful changes in contaminated ecosystems and threaten humans and living organisms as well. Bioremediation (including bioremediation stimulated by biogenic substances and inoculation with biopreparations from autochthonous bacteria and fungi) can result in creation of metabolites of a varied structure and biological activeness, which has been partly recognised. Some of them are more toxic than an initial substrate. Besides, they might have mutagenic features and be responsible for cancer. Estimation of bioremediation effectiveness in waste pits was completed with toxicological monitoring. It was led with the use of living organisms as biomarkers representing all trophic levels of a chosen ecosystem: producers, consumers and reducers. This process enables total estimation of natural environment conditions. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of petroleum contaminants and indirect metabolites (produced during bioremediation) on soil biocenose. The results of biotests (toxicity, phytotoxicity and genotoxity) have been taken into account. The following biotests, prepared and produced by Microbiotest, have been applied: Phytotoxkit™, Ostracodtoxkit F™, acute toxicity tests Microtox © Solid Phase and Ames mutagenicity tests. The obtained results enabled observation of changes in toxic properties during purification of the soil taken from waste pits. In addition, it can be claimed whether the areas are suitable for forest usage. © 2011 Copyright by Institute of Envionmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Zabrze, Poland.

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