Athens, OH, United States
Athens, OH, United States

Ohio University is a U.S. public research university located on a 1,850-acre campus in Athens, Ohio, United States. Ohio is the first institution of higher education chartered through an act of Congress in America, by the Northwest Ordinance in 1787; the first university in the former Northwest Territory, in 1804; and is the ninth oldest public university in the United States. The Athens campus enrolls more than 21,000 students, who come from nearly every state and approximately 100 countries. Five regional campuses and e-learning programs further extend educational access and opportunity to students across southern Ohio and bring the total student population to approximately 40,000.The university maintains a selective admission rate with further admission requirements for its schools. The Heritage College of Medicine maintains its separate select admissions criteria. Ohio University offers more than 250 areas of undergraduate study. On the graduate level, the university grants master’s degrees in many of its major academic divisions, and doctoral degrees in selected departments. Ohio University is fully accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching classifies Ohio as a Research University under the Basic Classification category.Ohio has been cited for outstanding academic quality and value by publications Fortune, U.S. News and World Report, BusinessWeek, Forbes, America's 100 Best College Buys, Princeton Review's Best Colleges, and Peterson's Guide to Competitive Colleges. The John Templeton Foundation has also recognized Ohio University as one of the top character-building institutions in the country. The Chronicle of Higher Education has recognized the university as one of the top producers of U.S. Fulbright scholars by type of institution, with the highest number of recipients in the state as well as the Mid-American Conference in 2011-12. Its total number of Fulbright winners frequently ranks the university first in the state and places the university in the company of Boston College, Princeton University, and UCLA.Ohio's Division I sports teams are called the Bobcats and compete in the Mid-American Conference in all sports. Ohio is host to the oldest football venue in the MAC and among the oldest athletic arenas west of the Allegheny Mountains. Ohio football has participated in 6 Division-1 Bowl Games within the past decade. Its men's basketball team has played in 13 NCAA basketball championships. The team defeated Georgetown 97-83 in 2010, and their 2012 victory over Michigan was followed with a 62–56 win over 12th seeded South Florida that saw them reach the Sweet Sixteen for the first time since 1964. Wikipedia.

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University of Arizona and Ohio University | Date: 2015-02-13

A first example provides a circuit configured to operate in four modes. A first mode includes propagating data from a first terminal of the circuit to a second terminal of the circuit. A second mode includes propagating data from the second terminal of the circuit to the first terminal. A fourth mode includes storing data received by the second terminal. A second example provides a circuit configured to cause one or more communication links to operate in one of two modes based on data traffic detected on the one or more communication links. The first mode includes propagating data from a first router to a second router. The second mode includes propagating data to the first router from the second router.

Ohio University | Date: 2015-02-12

A method for enhancing the mass transfer rate of a soluble gas from a gaseous phase to an aqueous phase is provided. The method comprises positioning a membrane formed from fibers relative to a supply of liquid such that a portion of the membrane is submerged in the supply of liquid and is thereby wetted. The method further comprises moving the wetted portion of the membrane relative to the supply of liquid such that the wetted portion of the membrane exits from the supply of liquid to expose the liquid in the wetted portion of the membrane to a soluble gas. The method further comprises submerging the wetted portion in the supply of liquid.

Ohio University | Date: 2015-03-23

A fluid processing system and method of processing a fluid includes a tank having an outer wall, a heating element, and an insulating element. The heating element is situated within the tank and includes a first electrode and a second electrode. The insulating element is positioned between the first electrode and the second electrode. As such, powering the heating element directs an electric current through the fluid within the tank for heating the fluid, while the insulating element provides electrical and thermal insulation to the outer wall of the tank.

The invention relates to a method and means for the non-invasive diagnosis of type II diabetes mellitus. The glycation state is determined in at least one glycation position of selected plasma proteins.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: Nuclear & Hadron Quantum Chrom | Award Amount: 180.00K | Year: 2016

This project seeks answers to two of the overarching questions central to nuclear physics: How does subatomic matter organize itself and what phenomena emerge?, and Are the fundamental interactions that are basic to the structure of matter fully understood?. The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is successful at describing interactions of elementary particles, but it is known to be incomplete, because the SM fails to describe phenomena that shape our universe, like the difference between matter and anti-matter or the nature of dark matter. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which the strong force binds three light elementary particles, quarks, to make massive composite particles, proton and neutrons, are not well understood quantitatively. Over ninety nine percent of the mass of the visible matter in the universe is generated by the strong force in this way. In this context, the PIs are involved in two experimental programs using the electron beam at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, first to investigate the internal structure of the proton as a means of investigating the nature of the strong force, and second to search for physics beyond the Standard Model by performing precision measurements of interactions with precise Standard Model predictions. The PIs will train two graduate students and undergraduate students in carrying out the research program, and will engage in STEM outreach activities through the Adopt a physicist program.

This project will support in part the use of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering of electrons from the proton to produce a 3-D tomographic picture of the internal structure of the proton against which models of the strong force can be tested. Roche is one of the spoke persons for experiment E12-06-114 at JLab, and this project will support the data taking and data analysis for this experiment. The immediate goal of this experiment is to test the hypothesis of scaling on which the Generalized Parton Distribution formalism used to interpret this kind of experiments is based. The second project supported by this award will further the involvement of the PIs and their students in the JLab parity violating electron scattering experiments, QWEAK and MOLLER. These experiments test the Standard Model by studying the electromagnetic and weak forces in electron-proton and electron-electron scattering. The PIs will continue their work with QWEAK up to publication of the final results, and will use their expertise in data acquisition and software development for the preparation of the MOLLER experiment.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Service, Manufacturing, and Op | Award Amount: 178.62K | Year: 2016

Yield and reliability are critical factors in determining the success of nanoelectronics manufacturing. They are traditionally evaluated separately based on different sources of information. Yield is generally estimated based on process control data such as measurements of manufacturing defects; while reliability prediction generally relies on lifetime data obtained from reliability tests. It is difficult to implement an end-of-line reliability assessment approach at early stages of a products life cycle when data are limited. If successful, this research will enable a unified framework for managing yield, reliability, and stress burn-in in nanoelectronics manufacturing using process-control data. In addition, the integrated research and education plan associated with this award will provide interdisciplinary education and research opportunities for students from the underrepresented and impoverished Appalachian Ohio area and promote STEM education through K-12 outreach activities.

This award focuses on yield and reliability of nanoelectronics products via spatiotemporal modeling of defects. The spatial modeling and temporal modeling of defects refer to modeling of the spatial distribution of defects and modeling of the growth of defects with time when devices are subject to stresses, respectively. A multidisciplinary team consisting of two PIs with expertise in nanoelectronics manufacturing and reliability engineering, respectively, is formed. Systematic accelerated destructive degradation tests followed by detailed physics-of-failure analysis will be conducted to explore failure mechanisms and to derive physics-based random defect-growth models. New yield models will be built based on the knowledge of defect size distribution and spatial distribution of defects. New reliability models will be suggested based on the defect-growth mechanisms and models. The reliability models will lead to new burn-in procedures. Ultra-narrow copper interconnect lines with sub 100 nanometers width prepared from a plasma-based etch process will be used as the testbed for the methodology.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: PARTICULATE &MULTIPHASE PROCES | Award Amount: 512.25K | Year: 2016

CBET - 1554044
PI: Hormozi, Sarah

Slurries are concentrated suspensions of particles in a viscous liquid. They are found in natural settings, such as landslides, mudslides, and underwater avalanches, and in industrial settings, such as in tailings from mining operations. The goal of this CAREER project is to develop experimental and modeling methods to examine the fluid dynamical behavior of slurries when the viscous liquid that conveys the particles exhibits complex behavior on its own. The experiments will cover a wide range of flow regimes, and the results will fill an important knowledge gap in understanding the flow characteristics of slurries. This understanding is essential to make accurate predictions of how natural disasters start and spread and to avoid or reduce their impacts. Data acquired in the project will be useful to researchers who are interested in developing new models of slurries and to practitioners who develop equipment to process these complex materials. In addition, results from the project will be incorporated into classes at Ohio University. Researchers working on the project will participate in a variety of outreach programs, including TechSavvy, a career conference for girls and the adults who support them, and a residential Technology Camp for high school girls that provides opportunities for young women to explore careers in engineering and technology.

This CAREER project focuses on the development of experimental and modeling techniques to investigate rheological properties of slurries in which the suspending liquid by itself exhibits non-Newtonian behavior, including a yield stress and shear-thinning. For example, this is the case in mine tailings and debris, where small colloidal particles impart non-Newtonian behavior to the suspending liquid that affects the rheology of suspensions of larger, noncolloidal particles. The experiments will span low-Reynolds number to inertial regimes, and will determine the particle pressure tensor and the kinetics of shear-induced migration of the particles. Radiography and three-dimensional micro-tomography will be used to determine the local volume fraction of the particles and the local stress components. Particle imaging and tracking velocimetry will be used to characterize the underlying microstructure, i.e., the spatial and temporal arrangement of the particles, and connect it to the macroscopic rheology of the slurry. Results will be used to develop accurate theoretical frameworks to model geophysical flows and predict initiation, spreading dynamics and runout, which will help limit the impact of natural disasters.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SOCIOLOGY | Award Amount: 146.06K | Year: 2016

Bruce Hoffman
Ohio University

This project uses archival materials from the Presidents Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (1965-67) and interviews with commission staff to investigate the use of empirical science and technologies of systems analysis to rationalize and reshape traditional criminal justice practice. Regarded as a defining moment in the organization of criminal justice and criminological science due to its creation of federal institutions to fund criminal justice research, other contributions of the commission have been less appreciated, including its impact on criminal justice education by creating a disciplinary field of criminal justice distinct from sociology and its use of systems analysis to create models of the criminal justice process as an integrated system whose varied components were coordinated towards the common goal of crime control. This project will conduct the first sustained analysis of the Crime Commission, investigating how diverse visions of crime prevention and criminal justice were introduced, negotiated, packaged, and enacted over the course of the commission and by other groups in its immediate aftermath; how knowledge production was shaped through organizational dynamics between commissioners and the staff of the commissions nine task force panels; and the specific impact of the Science and Technology Task Force, which brought systems analysis to the field of civil defense and the war on crime.

The projects focus on science and technology provides a nuanced challenge to interpretations of the commission as extending Great Society agendas in uncomplicated ways. It explores how initial commission concerns with poverty and social causation dropped out of the commissions mappings and models of the criminal justice process, anticipating and shaping subsequent approaches and policy, and helps illuminate the subsequent extension of criminal justice technologies into everyday life. The analysis of extensive transcripts of meetings spanning a sixteenth month period adds to our understanding of the construction of scientific advisory reports, showing how diverse understandings of scientific aims and political interests are negotiated and packaged for perceived audiences. The project also serves as the last opportunity to preserve the memories and contemporary evaluations of justice practices by commission staff whose careers that began with the possibilities of the Crime Commission and witnessed unprecedented transformations in criminal justice practices.

The project is based in the empirical collection and analysis of three types of data. First, the study will use the tools of contemporary science studies to engage in a careful textual analysis of the public documents of the crime commission, interpreting these technical reports as public performances through which scientific credibility is communicated and maintained. Second, the analysis of official accounts will be complemented by the analysis of internal accounts collected at NARA sites and related collections. The archives are believed to contain a variety of relevant documents, including transcripts from commission meetings, notes from advisory panels, internal letters and memoranda, drafts of reports, and early maps and models of the criminal justice process. Both the public documents and internal documents will be coded using similar coding mechanisms enabling larger themes and developments to emerge. Third, the investigator will seek to contact and conduct audiotaped or videotaped interviews of all available staff connected with the commission. The goal of these interviews is to collect general perspectives of recollected operations, aspirations, and tensions within the crime commission across multiple organizational roles and standpoints, which can be cross-referenced with archival documents and other interviews. The investigator will also seek to record and gain participants insights into previously unrecognized connections between the systems model being set forth and the subsequent development of criminal justice and criminology, as well as their interpretation and evaluation of later developments.

The project will design an interactive website designed for classroom use. The site will use techniques of science and technology studies to translate the projects central themes concerning science and the origins of the criminal justice system. At a time of heightened interest and criticism of US policies of mass incarceration and institutionalized criminal justice responses to racial inequality and popular protest, the project and website serves as an important history of the present that contextualizes how contemporary configurations of criminological science and criminal justice practices emerged and illuminates alternative paths not taken. The study also trains a team of undergraduates in archival research, the organization and analysis of primary source documents, and the development and presentation of research at professional meetings.

Treatment of autoimmune and/or inflammatory diseases associated with overexpression of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and/or TLR3/TLR4 signaling in nonimmune cells, monocytes, macrophages, and/or dendritic cells in association with related pathologies. The use of phenylmethimazoles, methimazole derivatives, and tautomeric cyclic thiones for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases associated with TLR3 as well as TLR4 and/or TLR3/TLR4 cellular signaling in association with related pathologies is disclosed. Methods of treating a subject having a disease or condition associated with abnormal TLR-3 as well as TLR-4 and/or TLR3/TLR4 cellular signaling in association with related pathologies are also disclosed. The present disclosure also relates to the treatment of autoimmune-inflammatory pathologies and chemokine and cytokine-mediated diseases associated with TLR overexpression and signaling. The disclosure also relates to pharmaceutical formulations capable of inhibiting the IRF-3/Type 1 IFN/STAT/ISRE/IRF-1 pathway associated with Toll-like receptor overexpression or signaling.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Biological Anthropology | Award Amount: 260.02K | Year: 2016

This project is a paleontological investigation to understand how primates and other organisms responded to dramatic environmental changes approximately 25 million years ago in Africa. The primary goals are to characterize a newly discovered fauna, find additional fossil-bearing localities, and conduct geological analyses to document the precise age and environmental setting for each locality. Fossils from this critically under-sampled temporal and geographic setting, including some of the earliest evidence of ape species, fill a gap in the evolutionary record and make it possible to test hypotheses regarding the sequence, timing and ecological context of primate evolution and biotic transitions. The project includes an interdisciplinary research team to mentor early-career scientists and provide hands-on field and laboratory research opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students, including females and students from underrepresented groups in STEM research. Results will be disseminated via conference presentations and publications in international journals, seminars for general audiences, symposia/workshops, interactive science outreach websites, museum exhibits, and K-12 learning activities.

The study area for this project records an important window into Late Oligocene African terrestrial ecosystems, yielding the oldest specimens documenting the cercopithecoid-hominoid divergence. Near the Oligo-Miocene boundary, collision between Afro-Arabia and Eurasia resulted in large-scale faunal turnover, with eventual replacement of much of Africas resident biota by invasive species. This altered the landscape of predation and competition, with profound implications for biodiversity. This project hypothesizes that key shifts in primate community composition were already occurring on the African continent prior to the Oligo-Miocene transition. Recent discoveries suggest that early hominoid and cercopithecoid evolution in eastern Africa took place against the backdrop of previously unrecognized tectonic activity in the western branch of the East African Rift System, coinciding with the global late Oligocene warming event, and pre-dating larger-scale faunal shifts that intensified later in the Miocene. These hypotheses will be tested using data collected from >400 m of geological section containing a diverse array of flora and fauna, with intercalated volcanic deposits providing age-constraint. Research methodologies integrate specimen-based microscopy, micro-CT techniques, morphometric and phylogenetic studies, together with geological analyses to document ecological setting and geochronology of the study sites.

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