Ohio State Wexner Medical Center

Columbus, OH, United States

Ohio State Wexner Medical Center

Columbus, OH, United States
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News Article | May 22, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

Athletes with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to play basketball or football rather than golf or tennis. According to a new study from The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, athletes living with ADHD are more likely to participant in team contact sports rather than individual sports and ultimately increase their risk of injury by doing so. “We expected athletes with ADHD to gravitate toward individual sports, like golf or tennis, where they have more control, there is a little bit more repetitiveness and they don’t have to worry about the responsibilities or roles of teammates or opponents,” Dr. James Borchers, director of the Division of Sports Medicine at Ohio State Wexner Medical Center, said in a statement. “But what we found was our athletes with ADHD were twice as likely to compete in team sports, and their rate of participation in contact sports, like football, hockey and lacrosse, was 142 percent higher,” he added. The researchers analyzed and charted injuries of more than 850 athletes from Ohio State University who competed in a variety of sports over a five-year timespan. “We know in young people with ADHD that they do have an increase in impulsivity and a little bit more reckless behavior,” Dr. Trevor Kitchin, primary care sports medicine fellow and researcher, said in a statement. “We’re not saying that ADHD led to injury, but given its known characteristics, it may be putting these athletes at higher risk, especially in contact sports.” While there are more injuries in contact sports, the research didn’t show that ADHD was related to any particular type of injury. Previous research has shown a correlation between participating in sports and a reduction in the symptoms of ADHD in children. “One of the most important things is having an open dialogue between the athlete, parents, coaches and athletic trainers so that they can work together to give the athlete the resources necessary to be successful in their sport,” Kitchin said. According to the researchers, just over 5.5 percent of athletes were diagnosed and treated for ADHD, approximately the same percentage as the general student population. It is estimated that more than six million children in the U.S. suffer from ADHD. “This study is a great first step in understanding our student athlete population, the type of sports they play and other clinical conditions so we can better help those student athletes with the sport they’re playing,” Borchers said.


A new study from The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center finds athletes with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to compete in team contact sports than individual sports, which could increase their risk of injury. The study, presented at the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, analyzed more than 850 athletes who competed in a variety of sports over a five-year period at The Ohio State University. "We expected athletes with ADHD to gravitate toward individual sports, like golf or tennis, where they have more control, there is a little bit more repetitiveness and they don't have to worry about the responsibilities or roles of teammates or opponents," said Dr. James Borchers, director of the Division of Sports Medicine at Ohio State Wexner Medical Center. "But what we found was our athletes with ADHD were twice as likely to compete in team sports, and their rate of participation in contact sports, like football, hockey and lacrosse, was 142 percent higher." Researchers charted injuries in these athletes as well, and although there is no direct correlation between ADHD and certain types of injures, there may be an increased risk of injury. "We know in young people with ADHD that they do have an increase in impulsivity and a little bit more reckless behavior," Dr. Trevor Kitchin, primary care sports medicine fellow and researcher, said. "We're not saying that ADHD led to injury, but given its known characteristics, it may be putting these athletes at higher risk, especially in contact sports." Research has shown that participating in sports can help mitigate symptoms of ADHD in children. Doctors encourage parents of children with ADHD to let them try any sport they're interested in, as the benefits of trying and participating in sport outweigh any issues that may arise because they have ADHD. "One of the most important things is having an open dialogue between the athlete, parents, coaches and athletic trainers so that they can work together to give the athlete the resources necessary to be successful in their sport," Kitchin said. The researchers also found that just over 5.5 percent of athletes were diagnosed and treated for ADHD, which is about the same percentage found in the general student population. "This study is a great first step in understanding our student athlete population, the type of sports they play and other clinical conditions so we can better help those student athletes with the sport they're playing," Borchers said. It's estimated there are more than 6 million children in the United States with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).


News Article | May 22, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

Athletes with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to play basketball or football rather than golf or tennis. According to a new study from The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, athletes living with ADHD are more likely to participant in team contact sports rather than individual sports and ultimately increase their risk of injury by doing so. “We expected athletes with ADHD to gravitate toward individual sports, like golf or tennis, where they have more control, there is a little bit more repetitiveness and they don’t have to worry about the responsibilities or roles of teammates or opponents,” Dr. James Borchers, director of the Division of Sports Medicine at Ohio State Wexner Medical Center, said in a statement. “But what we found was our athletes with ADHD were twice as likely to compete in team sports, and their rate of participation in contact sports, like football, hockey and lacrosse, was 142 percent higher,” he added. The researchers analyzed and charted injuries of more than 850 athletes from Ohio State University who competed in a variety of sports over a five-year timespan. “We know in young people with ADHD that they do have an increase in impulsivity and a little bit more reckless behavior,” Dr. Trevor Kitchin, primary care sports medicine fellow and researcher, said in a statement. “We’re not saying that ADHD led to injury, but given its known characteristics, it may be putting these athletes at higher risk, especially in contact sports.” While there are more injuries in contact sports, the research didn’t show that ADHD was related to any particular type of injury. Previous research has shown a correlation between participating in sports and a reduction in the symptoms of ADHD in children. “One of the most important things is having an open dialogue between the athlete, parents, coaches and athletic trainers so that they can work together to give the athlete the resources necessary to be successful in their sport,” Kitchin said. According to the researchers, just over 5.5 percent of athletes were diagnosed and treated for ADHD, approximately the same percentage as the general student population. It is estimated that more than six million children in the U.S. suffer from ADHD. “This study is a great first step in understanding our student athlete population, the type of sports they play and other clinical conditions so we can better help those student athletes with the sport they’re playing,” Borchers said.


News Article | April 24, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

COLUMBUS, Ohio - A financially strapped pregnant woman's worries about the arrival and care of her little one could contribute to birth of a smaller, medically vulnerable infant, a new study suggests. Researchers at The Ohio State University found that pregnancy-specific distress, such as concerns that the baby's needs won't be met, appears to be a pathway between financial strain and higher likelihood of a low-birth-weight infant. The study appeared in the journal Archives of Women's Mental Health. "There is an opportunity here to look for interventions during pregnancy that could help mitigate the effects of financial strain on birth outcomes," said lead author Amanda Mitchell, a postdoctoral researcher in Ohio State Wexner Medical Center's Stress and Health in Pregnancy Research Program. While larger efforts to improve access to housing, jobs and support for low-income women is critical, there are potential low-cost, stress-reduction techniques that could help reduce risk, Mitchell said. Meditation and breathing exercises could prove useful, for instance, she said. "It's important for all women who experience pregnancy-related stress to seek out help coping with that stress," Mitchell said. "And ob-gyns and other medical providers should also talk about stress during their visits with expecting moms." The study included 138 pregnant women who filled out questionnaires to assess financial strain, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific distress, perceived stress and general anxiety. Moms in the racially diverse study group were between five and 31 weeks pregnant and 29 years old on average at the time of the assessment. The study, which was primarily designed to evaluate flu vaccine effectiveness, ran from 2013 to 2015. After the participants' babies were born, researchers were able to review medical records to compare birth weight against moms' questionnaire responses during pregnancy. The researchers knew from previous studies that pregnant moms who are socioeconomically disadvantaged have a higher likelihood of having smaller babies and worse birth outcomes. What they wanted to learn was whether specific factors could be driving that connection - factors that could lead to positive interventions for women at risk of delivering low-birth-weight babies. Statistical models designed to identify those drivers landed on one statistically significant factor: pregnancy-specific distress. "This includes concerns about labor and delivery, about relationships changing, about working after the baby arrives, paying for medical care, and whether the baby will be unhealthy," said study senior author Lisa Christian, associate professor of psychiatry and a member of the Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research at Ohio State. Financial strain was assessed based on a five-point scale derived from moms' responses to three questions: "How difficult is it for you to live on your total household income right now?" "In the next two months, how likely is it that you and your family will experience actual hardships, such as inadequate housing, food, or medical attention?" and "How likely is it that you and your family will have to reduce your standard of living to the bare necessities of life?" Low-birth-weight babies often suffer from serious health problems and spend their first weeks or months in intensive care. About 8 percent of babies born in the United States are underweight at birth. Low birth weight is clinically defined as below 2,500 grams, or 5 pounds and 8 ounces. "It's important to understand the factors that make it more likely for a woman with lower socioeconomic conditions to have a baby at higher risk of complications and death," Mitchell said. Limitations of the study include the fact that it was a secondary analysis of data collected during a different study, and that the overall number of low-birth-weight babies was small, at 11. The researchers suggest that replicating this study in a larger group would be beneficial. The Ohio State researchers are working on another study looking at blood biomarkers that might better explain what biological changes could be at play, including inflammation, Mitchell said. The study was supported by the National Institutes of Health.


News Article | May 11, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Athletes with ADHD more likely to choose team sports, which can increase risk of injury A new study from The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center finds athletes with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to compete in team contact sports than individual sports, which could increase their risk of injury. The study, presented today at the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, analyzed more than 850 athletes who competed in a variety of sports over a five-year period at The Ohio State University. "We expected athletes with ADHD to gravitate toward individual sports, like golf or tennis, where they have more control, there is a little bit more repetitiveness and they don't have to worry about the responsibilities or roles of teammates or opponents," said Dr. James Borchers, director of the Division of Sports Medicine at Ohio State Wexner Medical Center. "But what we found was our athletes with ADHD were twice as likely to compete in team sports, and their rate of participation in contact sports, like football, hockey and lacrosse, was 142 percent higher." Researchers charted injuries in these athletes as well, and although there is no direct correlation between ADHD and certain types of injures, there may be an increased risk of injury. "We know in young people with ADHD that they do have an increase in impulsivity and a little bit more reckless behavior," Dr. Trevor Kitchin, primary care sports medicine fellow and researcher, said. "We're not saying that ADHD led to injury, but given its known characteristics, it may be ptting these athletes at higher risk, especially in contact sports." Research has shown that participating in sports can help mitigate symptoms of ADHD in children. Doctors encourage parents of children with ADHD to let them try any sport they're interested in, as the benefits of trying and participating in sport outweigh any issues that may arise because they have ADHD. "One of the most important things is having an open dialogue between the athlete, parents, coaches and athletic trainers so that they can work together to give the athlete the resources necessary to be successful in their sport," Kitchin said. The researchers also found that just over 5.5 percent of athletes were diagnosed and treated for ADHD, which is about the same percentage found in the general student population. "This study is a great first step in understanding our student athlete population, the type of sports they play and other clinical conditions so we can better help those student athletes with the sport they're playing," Borchers said. It's estimated there are more than 6 million children in the United States with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).


News Article | November 14, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Prenatal exposure to a mother's stress contributes to anxiety and cognitive problems that persist into adulthood, a phenomenon that could be explained by lasting -- and potentially damaging -- changes in the microbiome, according to new research in mice. When pregnant mice were exposed to stress in the study, it appeared to change the makeup of the bacteria in both their guts and placentas, as well as in the intestinal tracts of their female offspring, researchers at The Ohio State University found. And those microbial changes lasted into adulthood. On top of that, the mice with stressed mothers struggled in tests aimed at gauging anxiety and cognitive health compared with female offspring of mice that were not stressed during pregnancy. And markers of inflammation increased in the placenta, the fetal brain and the adult brain of the offspring while a supportive protein called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) decreased. "More and more, doctors and researchers are understanding that naturally occurring bacteria are not just a silent presence in our body, but that they contribute to our health," said Tamar Gur, the lead researcher and assistant professor of psychiatry & behavioral health, neuroscience and obstetrics & gynecology at Ohio State. "These mice were more anxious, they spent more time in dark, closed spaces and they had a harder time learning cognitive tasks even though they were never stressed after birth." Gur presented the study on Nov. 14 in San Diego at Neuroscience 2016, the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. Previous studies have found associations between maternal stress in both animals and people to later mental health and behavioral problems in their offspring. This study could begin to explain what's at play in that relationship. "We already understand that prenatal stress can be bad for offspring, but the mystery is how," said Gur, a psychiatrist who is a member of Ohio State Wexner Medical Center's Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research. Gur said microbes from a mother's gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts are the first to colonize in a developing fetus (and in newborns). That makes the bacteria an interesting potential explanation of why and how stress before an animal or person is born could prompt mental illness that can last a lifetime. This study is pointing to alterations in the microbes that live in the placenta and outlines changes found in the placentas of fetal mice that had stressed mothers. Gur and her colleagues found significant microbial changes to the placentas of the female offspring of stressed mice. They also found alterations in inflammation and growth factors in the placenta, pointing to changes in how the microbes were influencing important dynamics before birth. And in the female offspring of the stressed mice, the researchers found a lower ability to learn and higher anxiety-like behavior compared to the offspring of non-stressed mother mice. Gur said the team found interesting changes in the male offspring as well, but the details of that part of the study are still in the works. Gur said she wants to know more about the links between the brain and the bacteria that live in the gut, and she and her colleagues have plans to expand their investigation to pregnant women and their babies. Perhaps one day the work will lead to knowledge about how probiotics could help mitigate the effects of stress and the downstream repercussions, but it's too soon now to say if they would have any impact, she said. The stressed mother mice underwent two hours per day for seven days of restraint meant to induce stress. For comparison, the researchers left another group of pregnant mice undisturbed during gestation. Gut bacteria were assessed using fecal samples from the mice. Gur stressed that the message here is not that mothers are to blame should their children suffer mental illness later in life. Rather, she said, this scientific development presents an opportunity to talk more about the importance of mental health in general and during pregnancy. "As a psychiatrist who treats pregnant women, if you're stressed, anxious or depressed, I think pregnancy is a prime time for intervention," Gur said. "And what's good for mom is good for the baby." The study was supported by the March of Dimes and the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation. Other researchers who worked on the study were Michael T. Bailey, Lena Shay, Sydney Fisher, Adidti Vadodkar and Vanessa Varaljay.


News Article | November 14, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

SAN DIEGO - Prenatal exposure to a mother's stress contributes to anxiety and cognitive problems that persist into adulthood, a phenomenon that could be explained by lasting - and potentially damaging - changes in the microbiome, according to new research in mice. When pregnant mice were exposed to stress in the study, it appeared to change the makeup of the bacteria in both their guts and placentas, as well as in the intestinal tracts of their female offspring, researchers at The Ohio State University found. And those microbial changes lasted into adulthood. On top of that, the mice with stressed mothers struggled in tests aimed at gauging anxiety and cognitive health compared with female offspring of mice that were not stressed during pregnancy. And markers of inflammation increased in the placenta, the fetal brain and the adult brain of the offspring while a supportive protein called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) decreased. "More and more, doctors and researchers are understanding that naturally occurring bacteria are not just a silent presence in our body, but that they contribute to our health," said Tamar Gur, the lead researcher and assistant professor of psychiatry & behavioral health, neuroscience and obstetrics & gynecology at Ohio State. "These mice were more anxious, they spent more time in dark, closed spaces and they had a harder time learning cognitive tasks even though they were never stressed after birth." Gur presented the study on Nov. 14 in San Diego at Neuroscience 2016, the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. Previous studies have found associations between maternal stress in both animals and people to later mental health and behavioral problems in their offspring. This study could begin to explain what's at play in that relationship. "We already understand that prenatal stress can be bad for offspring, but the mystery is how," said Gur, a psychiatrist who is a member of Ohio State Wexner Medical Center's Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research. Gur said microbes from a mother's gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts are the first to colonize in a developing fetus (and in newborns). That makes the bacteria an interesting potential explanation of why and how stress before an animal or person is born could prompt mental illness that can last a lifetime. This study is pointing to alterations in the microbes that live in the placenta and outlines changes found in the placentas of fetal mice that had stressed mothers. Gur and her colleagues found significant microbial changes to the placentas of the female offspring of stressed mice. They also found alterations in inflammation and growth factors in the placenta, pointing to changes in how the microbes were influencing important dynamics before birth. And in the female offspring of the stressed mice, the researchers found a lower ability to learn and higher anxiety-like behavior compared to the offspring of non-stressed mother mice. Gur said the team found interesting changes in the male offspring as well, but the details of that part of the study are still in the works. Gur said she wants to know more about the links between the brain and the bacteria that live in the gut, and she and her colleagues have plans to expand their investigation to pregnant women and their babies. Perhaps one day the work will lead to knowledge about how probiotics could help mitigate the effects of stress and the downstream repercussions, but it's too soon now to say if they would have any impact, she said. The stressed mother mice underwent two hours per day for seven days of restraint meant to induce stress. For comparison, the researchers left another group of pregnant mice undisturbed during gestation. Gut bacteria were assessed using fecal samples from the mice. Gur stressed that the message here is not that mothers are to blame should their children suffer mental illness later in life. Rather, she said, this scientific development presents an opportunity to talk more about the importance of mental health in general and during pregnancy. "As a psychiatrist who treats pregnant women, if you're stressed, anxious or depressed, I think pregnancy is a prime time for intervention," Gur said. "And what's good for mom is good for the baby." The study was supported by the March of Dimes and the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation. Other researchers who worked on the study were Michael T. Bailey, Lena Shay, Sydney Fisher, Adidti Vadodkar and Vanessa Varaljay.


News Article | November 4, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Researchers say we rely more on vision after injuries, suggest a new approach to rehab COLUMBUS, Ohio - Researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center found that regaining full function after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is more than just physical - it requires retraining the brain. A new study, published in the Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, shows parts of the brain associated with leg movement lagged during recovery from an ACL injury. Through comparing brain scans, researchers could see the differences in brain activity in healthy adults, versus those recovering from ACL injuries, when extending and flexing the knee. "The brain fundamentally changed in how it processes information from an injured knee," said Dustin Grooms, a researcher who conducted the study at Ohio State and is currently employed at Ohio University. "We think those changes play a big role in why people who recover from ACL injuries don't trust their knees entirely and tend to move them differently." The brain scans showed that instead of relying on movement or spatial awareness, people who had suffered an ACL injury relied more on their visual systems in the brain when moving their knee and didn't move it as naturally or instinctively as those who had not been injured. "It's like walking in the dark, you don't walk as fast, you don't move as confidently," said Jimmy Onate, a health and rehabilitative sciences researcher at Ohio State Wexner Medical Center. "These individuals may, in a smaller sense, be doing the same thing - not moving as confidently and constantly using visual feedback from the world around them when they really don't need to." Consistently depending on the brain's visual systems for movement can cause complications when participating in complex sports. To help patients overcome that, therapists are using strobe glasses to include motor learning and visual-motor compensations in rehabilitation. "The idea is to use these glasses to visually distract these patients, so their brains will rewire back to their original state," said Grooms. "That will allow them to once again move their knee based on natural instinct instead of relying on visual cues." Individuals who experience an ACL injury and attempt to return to activity are 30 to 40 times more likely to sustain a second ACL injury relative to those in the same sport that have not experienced an ACL injury.


News Article | February 27, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Research has proven the importance of early access to sound and spoken language among newborns and has led to significant advances in hearing screening and early intervention. Despite progress and improvements in educational and language outcomes of deaf children, children with hearing loss are still delayed, on average, when it comes to spoken language acquisition and still achieve lower reading levels and educational outcomes than children with normal hearing. Researchers from The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center have launched a study seeking to understand how deaf infants with cochlear implants absorb information and learn novel words during interactions with their parents, in an effort to help improve parental guidance with language development. "Our research uses a new methodology developed by colleagues at IU-Bloomington and adds high-tech sensing and computing technology to the traditional behavioral methodology of recording infant-parent interactions to investigate their reciprocal roles in language acquisition and cognitive development," said Derek Houston, lead investigator and associate professor of otolaryngology at the Buckeye Center for Hearing and Development at Ohio State Wexner Medical Center. There are two specific aims to the study. First, researchers investigate the role of deafness and subsequent cochlear implantation on infant-parent communicative interactions and related word learning by collecting communicative interaction data from deaf infants before and after cochlear implantation and also from age-matched children with normal hearing. Both group interactions are analyzed across several sessions and changes are documented. Secondly, investigators evaluate whether deaf children with cochlear implants benefit from similar cues for word learning as children with normal hearing. They're collecting and analyzing communicative interaction data and conduct assessments of novel word learning among deaf infants with 12 -18 months of cochlear implant experience as well as age-matched controls. During the audio-recorded sessions, the infant and parent wear head-mounted cameras with eye-tracking devices to precisely document where the child's focus is as the parent presents a toy with an unusual name. From six different angles, the technology records the child's reaction when a parent says a new word and researchers review the footage for patterns and signs of word recognition. "The innovative technology allows for sophisticated methods of integrating, analyzing and data-mining multimodal data from all of the cameras, eye trackers and microphone to perform micro-level behavioral analyses of interactive events, such as the rate at which the infant and parent look at the same object at the same time, also known as coordinated attention," Houston said. Houston and team say they're discovering how hearing loss affects that dynamic interaction with the parent, and how those effects impact the child's general cognitive and language development. They hope to extend their research to other clinical populations as well, such as those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder.


News Article | November 6, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center found that regaining full function after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is more than just physical -- it requires retraining the brain. A new study, published in the Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, shows parts of the brain associated with leg movement lagged during recovery from an ACL injury. Through comparing brain scans, researchers could see the differences in brain activity in healthy adults, versus those recovering from ACL injuries, when extending and flexing the knee. "The brain fundamentally changed in how it processes information from an injured knee," said Dustin Grooms, a researcher who conducted the study at Ohio State and is currently employed at Ohio University. "We think those changes play a big role in why people who recover from ACL injuries don't trust their knees entirely and tend to move them differently." The brain scans showed that instead of relying on movement or spatial awareness, people who had suffered an ACL injury relied more on their visual systems in the brain when moving their knee and didn't move it as naturally or instinctively as those who had not been injured. "It's like walking in the dark, you don't walk as fast, you don't move as confidently," said Jimmy Onate, a health and rehabilitative sciences researcher at Ohio State Wexner Medical Center. "These individuals may, in a smaller sense, be doing the same thing -- not moving as confidently and constantly using visual feedback from the world around them when they really don't need to." Consistently depending on the brain's visual systems for movement can cause complications when participating in complex sports. To help patients overcome that, therapists are using strobe glasses to include motor learning and visual-motor compensations in rehabilitation. "The idea is to use these glasses to visually distract these patients, so their brains will rewire back to their original state," said Grooms. "That will allow them to once again move their knee based on natural instinct instead of relying on visual cues." Individuals who experience an ACL injury and attempt to return to activity are 30 to 40 times more likely to sustain a second ACL injury relative to those in the same sport that have not experienced an ACL injury.

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