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Afrogheh A.H.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Afrogheh A.H.,Harvard University | Jakobiec F.A.,Harvard University | Jakobiec F.A.,Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary | And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2016

High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) is a wellestablished causative agent of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In addition, HR-HPV has occasionally been reported to be present in dysplastic and malignant lesions of the conjunctiva and lacrimal sac, although its overall incidence and etiological role in periocular SCC are controversial. Sequential surgical samples of 52 combined cases of invasive SCC (I-SCC) and SCC in situ (SCCIS) from 2 periocular sites (conjunctiva and lacrimal sac) diagnosed over a 14-year period (2000 to 2014) were selected for evaluation, and relevant patient characteristics were documented. p16 immunohistochemistry was performed as a screening test. All p16-positive cases were further evaluated for HR-HPV using DNA in situ hybridization (DNA ISH), and a subset was also analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 43 ocular surface squamous neoplasias (OSSNs), 30% (n=13; 8 SCCIS and 5 I-SCC cases) were positive for HRHPV. HPV-positive OSSNs occurred in 8 men and 5 women with a mean age of 60 years (range, 39 to 94 y). HPV type-16 was detected in all conjunctival cases evaluated by PCR. All 5 conjunctival I-SCCs were nonkeratinizing (n=4) or partially keratinizing (n=1) and managed by simple excision. In contrast, HPV-negative conjunctival I-SCCs were predominantly keratinizing (11 keratinizing and 2 nonkeratinizing). Of 9 lacrimal sac I-SCCs (LSSCCs), 66.7% (n=6) were positive for HR-HPV by p16 and DNA ISH; HPV subtypes were HPV-16 (n=5) and HPV-58 (n=1). In addition, 2 p16-positive cases with negative DNA ISH results were HR-HPV positive (HPV-16 and HPV-33) when evaluated by PCR, suggesting that the rate of HRHPV positivity among the LSSCCs may be as high as 89% (n=8). The combined group of HR-HPV-positive LSSCCs was seen in 4 men and 4 women with a mean age of 60 years (range, 34 to 71 y). Seven of the 8 HPV-positive LSSCCs (87.5%) had a nonkeratinizing or partially keratinizing histomorphology, whereas 1 case (12.5%) was predominantly keratinizing. The presence of HR-HPV in 30% of OSSNs and at least 66.7% of LSSCCs suggests the possibility of an etiologic role for HRHPV at these sites. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Okoroh J.S.,University of California at San Francisco | Okoroh J.S.,University of California at San Diego | Chia V.,University of California at San Diego | Chia V.,Harvard University | And 3 more authors.
World Journal of Surgery | Year: 2015

Abstract Introduction: Universal health coverage (UHC) has its roots in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and has recently gained momentum. Out-of-pocket payments (OPP) remain a significant barrier to care. There is an increasing global prevalence of non-communicable diseases, many of which are surgically treatable. We sought to provide a comparative analysis of the inclusion of surgical care in operating plans for UHC in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Methods: We systematically searched PubMed and Google Scholar using pre-defined criteria for articles published in English, Spanish, or French between January 1991 and November 2013. Keywords included "insurance," "OPP," "surgery," "trauma," "cancer," and "congenital anomalies." World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank, and Joint Learning Network for UHC websites were searched for supporting documents. Ministries of Health were contacted to provide further information on the inclusion of surgery. Results: We found 696 articles and selected 265 for full-text review based on our criteria. Some countries enumerated surgical conditions in detail (India, 947 conditions). Other countries mentioned surgery broadly. Obstetric care was most commonly covered (19 countries). Solid organ transplantation was least covered. Cancer care was mentioned broadly, often without specifying the therapeutic modality. No countries were identified where hospitals are required to provide emergency care regardless of insurance coverage. OPP varied greatly between countries. Eighty percent of countries had OPP of 60 % or more, making these services, even if partially covered, largely inaccessible. Conclusion: While OPP, delivery, and utilization continue to represent challenges to health care access in many LMICs, the inclusion of surgery in many UHC policies sets an important precedent in addressing a growing global prevalence of surgically treatable conditions. Barriers to access, including inequalities in financial protection in the form of high OPP, remain a fundamental challenge to providing surgical care in LMICs. © 2015 Société Internationale de Chirurgie. Source

Prevedello L.M.,Ohio State Wexner Medical Center
International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2014

Introduction Computed tomography (CT) is a key component in the evaluation of skull base diseases. With its ability to clearly delineate the osseous anatomy, CT can provide not only important tips to diagnosis but also key information for surgical planning. Objectives The purpose of this article is to describe some of the main CT imaging features that contribute to the diagnosis of skull base tumors, review recent knowledge related to bonymanifestations of these conditions, and summarize recent technological advances in CT that contribute to image quality and improved diagnosis. Data Synthesis Recent advances in CT technology allow fine-detailed evaluation of the bony anatomy using submillimetric sections. Dual-energy CT material decomposition capabilities allow clear separation between contrast material, bone, and soft tissues with many clinical applications in the skull base. Dual-energy technology has also the ability to decrease image degradation from metallic hardwares using some techniques that can result in similar or even decreased radiation to patients. Conclusions CT is very useful in the evaluation of skull base diseases, and recent technological advances can increase disease conspicuity resulting in improved diagnostic capabilities and enhanced surgical planning. Copyright © 2014 by Thieme Publicações Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Source

Jean-Pierre P.,Harper Cancer Research Institute | Jean-Pierre P.,University of Notre Dame | Winters P.C.,University of Rochester | Clark J.A.,Boston University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Education | Year: 2013

Patient navigation has emerged as a promising strategy for addressing racial-ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in cancer-related care. However, little is known about the impact of patients' perception of the quality of navigation on patient outcomes. We examined the impact of better-rated navigators on patients' satisfaction with cancer-related care. The sample included 1,593 adults (85.8%with abnormal cancer screening and 14.2 % with confirmed cancer diagnosis) who received patient navigation. We defined better-rated navigators as those scoring above the first quartile of mean scores on the Patient Satisfaction with Interpersonal Relationship with Navigator scale.We defined patient satisfaction based on scores above or below the median of the Patient Satisfaction with Cancer-Related Care (PSCC) scale. We controlled for patient and site characteristics using backward selection logistic regression analyses. Among patients with abnormal screening, having a better-rated navigator was associated with high r score on the PSCC (p<0.05). After controlling for other bivariate predictors of satisfaction (e.g., age, race, income, and household size), navigation by better-rated navigators was associated with a greater likelihood of having higher patient satisfaction [odds ratio (OR), 1.38; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.82]. Similar findings between better-rated navigators and score on the PSCC were found for participants with diagnosed cancer (OR, 3.06; 95 % CI, 1.56-6.0). Patients navigated by better-rated navigators reported higher satisfaction with their cancer-related care. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013. Source

Ellis A.J.,University of California at Los Angeles | Portnoff L.C.,University of California at Los Angeles | Axelson D.A.,University of Pittsburgh | Kowatch R.A.,Ohio State Wexner Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2014

Family environmental variables are risk factors for recurrent courses of mood disorder in adolescents. The present study examined the association between parental expressed emotion (EE)-critical, hostile and/or emotionally overinvolved attitudes toward a concurrently ill offspring-and suicidal ideation in adolescents with bipolar disorder. The sample consisted of 95 adolescents with a bipolar I or II diagnosis who had experienced a mood episode in the prior 3 months. Participants (mean age=15.54 years, S.D.=1.4) were interviewed and completed questionnaires regarding current and past suicidal ideation prior to their participation in a treatment trial. Parents completed five-minute speech samples from which levels of EE were assessed. High EE attitudes in parents were associated with current suicidal ideation in adolescents. This relationship was independent of the effects of age, gender, current depressive or manic symptoms, comorbid diagnoses, bipolar I/II subtypes, family adaptability, and family cohesion. These results underscore the importance of addressing the emotional reactivity of caregivers in treating adolescents with bipolar disorder who have suicidal ideation. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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