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A 28-year-old male with single ventricular heart disease status post Fontan palliation and subsequent placement of left ventricle to ascending aorta (LV-AAo) valved conduit developed ascites and edema. Diagnostic catheterization revealed elevated ventricular end diastolic pressures (EDP) secondary to severe LV-AAo conduit regurgitation. Given the unique anatomy, surgical access via the right axillary artery provided optimal route for transcatheter valve implantation within the conduit. The procedure resulted in significant hemodynamic improvement with no complications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Armstrong G.T.,Tennessee | Ness K.K.,Tennessee | Srivastava D.,Tennessee | Kurt B.A.,Michigan | And 6 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have significant cardiovascular risk and require long-term surveillance. The current study assessed the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in adult survivors of childhood HL. METHODS: Thirty-one survivors of HL, 13 of whom (42%) were treated with radiotherapy (RT) only and 18 of whom (58%) were treated with multimodal therapy, underwent CCTA, echocardiography, electrocardiography (ECG), and treadmill stress testing. Obstructive CAD was defined as ≥50% occlusion of the left main or ≥70% occlusion of the left anterior descending, left circumflex, or right coronary arteries on CCTA. Echocardiograms with resting wall motion abnormalities or an ejection fraction <50%; ECGs with Q waves, ST abnormalities without Q waves, or T-wave abnormalities without Q waves; and a J-point depression of ≥1 mm with a horizontal or downsloping ST segment on stress testing were considered abnormal. RESULTS: The prevalence of disease in participants (median age, 40 years [range, 26 years-55 years]; median time from cancer diagnosis, 24 years [range, 17 years-39 years]) was 39%, with 39 plaques detected among 12 survivors. Three participants (10%) treated with RT only had 4 obstructive lesions; 9 patients (29%; 5 of whom were treated with RT only and 4 of whom were treated with multimodal therapy) had nonobstructive lesions. Approximately 15% of lesions involved the left main, 21% involved the proximal left anterior descending, 18% involved the proximal right coronary, and 13% involved the proximal left circumflex arteries. Of the 12 participants found to have CAD by CCTA, 7 had a positive ECG, 1 had a positive echocardiogram, and 1 had a positive stress test. CONCLUSIONS: CCTA identified CAD in a substantial percentage of survivors of HL and may be an effective screening modality for this population. © 2014 American Cancer Society. Source

Holland S.K.,Ohio
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2016

The importance of relationships between handedness, language lateralization and localization, and white matter tracts for language performance is unclear. The goal of the study was to investigate these relationships by examining arcuate fasciculus (AF) structural asymmetry (DTI) and functional asymmetry (fMRI) in language circuits, handedness, and linguistic performance. A large sample of right-handed (n=158) and atypical-handed (n=82) healthy adults underwent DTI at 3 T to assess number of streamlines and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the AF, and language fMRI. Language functions were assessed using standard tests of vocabulary, naming, verbal fluency, and complex ideation. Laterality indices (LIs) illustrated degree of asymmetry and lateralization patterns for the AF (streamlines and FA) and verb generation fMRI. Both handedness groups showed leftward lateralization bias for streamline and fMRI LIs and symmetry for FA LI. The proportion of subjects with left, right, or symmetric lateralization were similar between groups if based on AF LIs, but differed if based on fMRI LIs (p=0.0016). Degree of right-handedness was not associated with AF lateralization, but was associated with fMRI language lateralization (p=0.0014). FA LI was not associated with performance on language assessments, but streamline LI was associated with better vocabulary and complex ideation performance in atypical-handed subjects (p=0.022 and p=0.0098, respectively), and better semantic fluency in right-handed subjects (p=0.047); however, these did not survive multiple comparisons correction. We provide evidence that AF asymmetry is independent of hand preference, and while degree of right-handedness is associated with hemispheric language lateralization, the majority of atypical-handed individuals are left-lateralized for language. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

BACKGROUND: Silencing SOD2 expression upregulates androgen receptor (AR) signaling and expression of SOD2 is downregulated in CRPC, compared with untreated tumors. The decreased SOD2 activity could lead to AR gain-of-function and the development of castration-resistance. METHODS: We genotyped SOD2-rs4880 in a cohort of 753 prostate cancer patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) between 1996 and 2010. The rs4880 encodes Ala16Val in SOD2 and the Val variant has been demonstrated to be functionally less efficient than the Ala variant. We assessed the impact of SOD2-rs4880 variants on the time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) on ADT using multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS: Four hundred thirty-two out of 753 (57%) had metastases at the time of ADT initiation. Overall, median TTP on ADT was 18.4 (95%CI: 15.8, 20.9) months and median overall survival (OS) from ADT initiation was 6.3 (95%CI: 5.8, 6.8) years. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, there was no association between SOD-rs4880 and TTP or OS on ADT (P>0.05). Results were similarly negative among patients with and without metastatic disease at ADT initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Our result suggests that a functional genetic variant in SOD2 does not determine the efficacy of ADT for prostate cancer. It is possible that the drastic downregulation of SOD2 in advanced prostate cancer cells may have overridden any influence of the genetic variation of SOD2. This study suggests the need for careful consideration about timing if the application of SOD2 mimetics for prostate cancer therapy is considered. Prostate. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Trout A.T.,Ohio | Towbin A.J.,Ohio | Klingbeil L.,University of Cincinnati | von Allmen D.,Ohio
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2016

Background: Changes in three-dimensional (3D) measurements of neuroblastoma are used to assess response. Linear measurements may not accurately characterize tumor size due to the infiltrative character of these tumors. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and 3D measurements in characterizing neuroblastoma response compared to a reference standard of tumor volume. Procedure: We retrospectively reviewed imaging for 34 patients with stage 3 or 4 neuroblastoma. Blinded readers contoured or made linear measurements of tumors. Correlation coefficients were used to compare linear measurements to volumetric and 3D measurements. Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess bias between measurements. Sensitivity and specificity for patient events and survival were calculated for each measurement technique. Results: Mean patient age was 2.9 ± 3.0 years (range 0-15 years). There was strong correlation between volumetric and 1D (r = 0.78, P < 0.0001), 2D (r = 0.86, P < 0.0001), and 3D (r = 0.88, P < 0.0001) measurements. Mean bias between volumetric measurements and 1D, 2D, and 3D measurements was 37.1% (95% limits: 6.2-67.9%), 16.1% (95% limits: -11.7-43.8%), and 7.7% (95% limits: -19.7-35.1%), respectively. 1D and 2D measurements undercategorized response versus volumetric change in 88.2% (30/34) and 29.4% (10/34) of cases. 3D measurements incorrectly characterized response in 16.7% (4/24) of cases versus volumetric change. 3D measurements were highly sensitive for patient events and survival, but all measurement techniques had poor specificity. Conclusions: 3D measurements most accurately quantify neuroblastoma size response versus volumetric change in patients with stage 3 and 4 neuroblastoma. 1D and 2D measurements underrepresent tumor response. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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