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Katzrin, Israel

Berger I.,Tel Aviv University | Dvir Y.,Ohalo College | Dvir Y.,Kinneret College | Leshem Y.,Tel Aviv University | And 2 more authors.
Acta Ethologica | Year: 2013

Although 90 % of all bird species are monogamous, many species practice alternative reproductive strategies as extra-pair copulations, intra-specific brood parasitism, and quasi-parasitism. In territorial monogamous species, both partners hold and defend the territory from intruders. Often, the intruders are males and usually the local male banishes the intruders. Indeed, many studies focused on the response of the local male toward intruder males. However, the benefits and costs associated with the responses of the local male toward intruder females have been largely overlooked. Focusing mainly on alternative reproductive strategies, we developed a model to predict the aggression a monogamous male may demonstrate toward an intruder female during the pre-egg laying stage of his local female partner. This model demonstrates that the intensity of aggression that the local male shows toward an intruder female depends on the extra-pair copulations that his local female partner may perform. Further, the aggression also depends upon intra-specific brood parasitism and quasi-parasitism that might be carried out by the intruder female. Our approach suggests that when considering mating strategies, there is a need to assess how these three alternative reproductive strategies may affect the local male's aggression toward intruder females. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and ISPA.

Furman G.B.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Furman G.B.,Ohalo College | Meerovich V.M.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Sokolovsky V.L.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Quantum Information Processing | Year: 2011

Entanglement of dipole-dipole interacting spins 1/2 is usually investigated when the energy of interaction with an external magnetic field (the Zeeman energy) is greater than the energy of dipole interactions by three orders. Under this condition only a non-equilibrium state of the spin system, realized by pulse radiofrequence irradiations, results in entanglement. The present paper deals with the opposite case: the dipolar interaction energy is the order of magnitude or even larger than the Zeeman one. It was shown that entanglement appears under the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions and the concurrence reaches the maximum when the external field is directed perpendicular to the vector connecting the nuclei. For this direction of the field and a system of two spins with the Hamiltonian accounting the realistic dipole-dipole interactions in low external magnetic field, the exact analytical expression for concurrence was also obtained. The condition of the entanglement appearance and the dependence of concurrence on the external magnetic field, temperature, and dipolar coupling constant were studied. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Sharon R.,Migal Institute | Sharon R.,Ohalo College | Harari A.R.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Zahavi T.,Extension Service | And 7 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

A stolbur-type phytoplasma is the putative pathogen of grapevine yellows disease that causes economic damage to vineyards in most growing areas around the world. The pathogen is known to be transmitted to vines by two planthoppers, Hyalesthes obsoletus and Reptalus panzer; the latter is found in Europe but has not yet been observed in Israel. The establishment of a vector-pathogen-plant relationship requires that the pathogen and the vector meet on a shared host plant. This does not happen in the ecosystem examined here, where two different principal host plants for the obligate pathogen and its vector exist: the pathogen is established on vines, while its vector, H. obsoletus, develops on Vitex agnus-castus. The present study verified that: (i) the vector cannot complete its life cycle on vines; (ii) V. agnus-castus does not grow in the immediate vicinity of vines, and does not harbour the pathogen; and (iii) the pathogen is not vertically transmitted from mother to offspring. Moreover, in a thorough search of plants in vine growing areas, no other plants were found that host both the vector and the pathogen. However, it was found that the planthopper can acquire the phytoplasma from infected vines. Nonetheless, this does not prove the ability of the planthopper to further transmit the pathogen to vines and does not explain the presence of the vector on the non-preferred vines. Thus, the enigma of the pathogen-vector-host triangle in this system remains unresolved. © 2014 British Society for Plant Pathology.

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