Grellet-Tinner G.,The Field Museum |
Grellet-Tinner G.,CONICET |
Codrea V.,Babes - Bolyai University |
Folie A.,Royal Belgian Institute Of Natural Sciences |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Background: The Cretaceous vertebrate assemblages of Romania are famous for geographically endemic dwarfed dinosaur taxa. We report the first complete egg clutches of a dwarf lithostrotian titanosaur, from Toteşti, Romania, and its reproductive adaptation to the "island effect". Methodology/Findings: The egg clutches were discovered in sequential sedimentary layers of the Maastrichtian Sânpetru Formation, Toteşti. The occurrence of 11 homogenous clutches in successive strata suggests philopatry by the same dinosaur species, which laid clutches averaging four ~12 cm diameters eggs. The eggs and eggshells display numerous characters shared with the positively identified material from egg-bearing level 4 of the Auca Mahuevo (Patagonia, Argentina) nemegtosaurid lithostrotian nesting site. Microscopic embryonic integument with bacterial evidences was recovered in one egg. The millimeter-size embryonic integument displays micron size dermal papillae implying an early embryological stage at the time of death, likely corresponding to early organogenesis before the skeleton formation. Conclusions/Significance: The shared oological characters between the Haţeg specimens and their mainland relatives suggest a highly conservative reproductive template, while the nest decrease in egg numbers per clutch may reflect an adaptive trait to a smaller body size due to the "island effect". The combined presence of the lithostrotian egg and its embryo in the Early Cretaceous Gobi coupled with the oological similarities between the Haţeg and Auca Mahuevo oological material evidence that several titanosaur species migrated from Gondwana through the Haţeg Island before or during the Aptian/Albian. It also suggests that this island might have had episodic land bridges with the rest of the European archipelago and Asia deep into the Cretaceous. © 2012 Grellet-Tinner et al.
Hearst M.O.,University of Minnesota |
N. Laska M.,University of Minnesota |
Himes J.H.,University of Minnesota |
Butterbrodt M.,Pine Ridge Indian Hospital |
And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2011
Objective: To estimate the prevalence and explore the social and cultural etiologic roots of weight status, blood pressure, and acanthosis nigricans among American Indian children on a reservation in South Dakota. Methods: This observational study was conducted in 26 schools from 1998 to 2002 and included 5,422 observations representing 3,841 children, ages 3 to 19. Trained staff measured height, weight, blood pressure, and assessed the presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN). Percent Indian heritage (PIH) was abstracted from tribal records. Sociodemographic environment (SDE) was calculated using the 2000 Census at the city/town level. Descriptive analyses were conducted using one measurement time point, including tests for trend and co-occurrence of risk factors using the [kappa] statistic. Hierarchical, multivariate logistic regression estimated associations with overweight/obesity status, accounting for multiple measures on individuals and SDE. Results:: The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 46%, of hypertension 9%, and of AN 14%. The co-occurrence of risk factors was moderate to high. PIH and AN were positively associated in unadjusted analysis. Controlling for sex, age, and SDE, higher PIH was a significant correlate of overweight/obesity, although when hypertension (OR = 5.92, CI = 3.27-10.72), prehypertension (OR = 3.80, CI = 1.99-7.26), and AN (OR = 16.20, CI = 8.08-32.48) were included in the model PIH was no longer significant. SDE was not significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion: PIH appeared to be an important correlate of overweight and obesity, except when adjusted for the co-occurrence of high blood pressure and AN. Overall, the prevalence and co-occurrence of various risk factors in this population was high. Obesity prevention initiatives targeting families and communities are needed, as well as access to screening and treatment services. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Brave Heart M.Y.H.,University of New Mexico |
Chase J.,Oglala Lakota College |
Elkins J.,University of Georgia |
Altschul D.B.,University of New Mexico
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs | Year: 2011
Indigenous Peoples of the Americas have experienced devastating collective, intergenerational massive group trauma and compounding discrimination, racism, and oppression. There is increasing evidence of emotional responses to collective trauma and losses among Indigenous Peoples, which may help to inform ways of alleviating psychological suffering and unresolved grief. Tribal cultural and regional differences exist which may impact how the wounding across generations and within an individual's lifespan are experienced and addressed. This article will review the conceptual framework of historical trauma, current efforts to measure the impact of historical trauma upon emotional distress, and research as well as clinical innovations aimed at addressing historical trauma among American Indians/Alaska Natives and other Indigenous Peoples of the Americas. We will discuss assessment of historical trauma and implications for research and clinical as well as community interventions, and conclude with recommendations. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Fick D.R.,South Dakota School of Mines and Technology |
Gribb M.M.,South Dakota School of Mines and Technology |
Tinant C.J.,Oglala Lakota College
Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE | Year: 2013
Three educational institutions in South Dakota are collaborating to develop pre-engineering courses to increase the enrollment and success of students transferring from Oglala Lakota College (OLC) to 4-year bachelor degree programs in science and engineering at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSMT) and South Dakota State University through a grant from the National Science Foundation Tribal Colleges and Universities Program (TCUP). Activities of this grant have led to a partnership with the native-led Thunder Valley Community Development Corporation (TVCDC) and have provided significant opportunities for students at OLC and SDSMT in the areas of civil engineering and sustainability. The most recent opportunity includes incorporating TVCDC's plans for an 800-person net-zero regenerative community on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation into the Capstone Design course at SDSMT. The project includes sustainable design objectives in wastewater treatment, rainwater harvesting, and the use of straw bale and compressed earth walls as renewable building materials for phase I of the planned community. Four teams of students working on the regenerative community and four teams of students working on a more traditional capstone design project completed proposals and their first progress reports during the Fall 2012 semester. The Comprehensive Assessment of Team-Member Effectiveness (CATME) instrument was administered twice during the semester to evaluate team functioning. A comparison of the data for the two capstone projects is presented. Results from these surveys indicate students working on the regenerative community project were more positive and consistent with the behavioral and satisfaction categories within the peer evaluation survey. © 2013 IEEE.
Grellet-Tinner G.,The Field Museum |
Grellet-Tinner G.,CONICET |
Sim C.M.,Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute |
Kim D.H.,National Science Museum |
And 6 more authors.
Gondwana Research | Year: 2011
Although titanosaurs represent one of the most diverse radiations of non-avian dinosaurs during the Cretaceous, our knowledge of their early developmental stages was restricted to the Auca Mahuevo (Argentina) embryos in ovo. Here, we present the first complete lithostrotia titanosaur embryo in ovo. The relatively small spherical 87.07 to 91.1. mm egg was discovered at the Lower Cretaceous locality Algui Ulaan Tsav in Mongolia, and is, to date, the smallest positively identified titanosaur egg. Through taphonomic processes, the egg was transformed into a calcite geode at the bottom of which the embryonic bones settled down and are now partially exposed on the lower egg surface. Neutron tomography characterization reveals a fully developed embryo fossilized within a thin (7.6. mm-8.6. mm) calcite layer. EBSD, a SEM-based diffraction technique, which measures the complete crystallographic orientation of the crystal lattice from a submicron area on the sample surface, is used for the first time on an extinct dinosaur eggshell. Observations of the egg and its embryo combined with eggshell microcharacterizations suggest that this new embryo was a lithostrotia titanosaur with an intermediate robusticity index that shares a mosaic of skeletal characters with Diamantinasaurus matildae from Queensland (Australia) and the nemegtosaurid Rapetosaurus krausei (Madagascar) more than with any other titanosaurs. The Early Cretaceous age of Algui Ulaan Tsav implies that this specimen greatly predates the previously described lithostrotian titanosaurs from the Late Cretaceous sediments of Mongolia. In addition, the recognized amount of similar eggs that has been recovered during the last 70. years at Algui Ulaan Tsav suggests that a well-established population of lithostrotian titanosaurs used this site as a nesting site. The combined observations provide an important addition to Mongolian fossil richness and alter our understanding of the paleodispersion of this sauropod group. It now appears that lithostrotian sauropods would have reached Mongolia during the Aptian-Albian, thus suggesting the existence of a passage before the complete separation of the Laurasian and Gondwanan continents. Possibly, the lithostrotian north and eastward migration could have occurred between North Africa, Spain, and the rest of Europe prior to its fragmentation in large islands during the Cretaceous, thus justifying the presence of lithostrotians in the Cretaceous Romanian Hateg Island. © 2011 International Association for Gondwana Research.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 1.27M | Year: 2015
A goal of the Tribal Colleges and Universities Program (TCUP) is to increase the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) instructional and research capacities of specific institutions of higher education that serve the Nations indigenous students. Expanding the STEM curricular offerings at these institutions expands the opportunities of their students to pursue challenging, rewarding careers in STEM fields, provides for research studies in areas that may be culturally significant, and encourages a community and generational appreciation for science and mathematics education. This project aligns directly with that goal, and moreover will inform the body of knowledge about the importance and conduct of pre-college and undergraduate research experiences in recruiting and retaining underrepresented individuals into STEM studies, and preparing the next generation of STEM professionals. The connection of students to research is an important step in retaining students who are more likely to pursue advanced degrees. For those students entering the workforce directly from a tribal college it is equally important that they have a well-defined skill set in mathematics, science, and technology for entry into the STEM workforce. The project also advances objectives of the STEM+Computing Partnerships program through its multidisciplinary STEM research on teaching and learning.
The specific activities are to: engage K-12 students through science fairs, bridge high school graduates through a shared research activity with a K-12 science teacher-mentor, develop decentralized mathematics and scientific-writing learning communities, continue high-quality undergraduate research, develop discovery-based physics and ethnomathematics enrichment activities for mathematics courses, and provide for student and faculty scientific dissemination of discipline specific and educational findings through publishing in peer-reviewed journals. The improvements in STEM recruiting, retention, persistence, and completion that will be realized through these strategies will be sustained through programmatic improvements and departmental alignment with Oglala Lakotas strategic plan and enrollment management plan. Woksapi Kici Woitinze strengthens STEM education and undergraduate research through: 1) design, adaptation and assessment of innovative educational strategies to increase the capacity and effectiveness of the college to attract, retain, and educate students in STEM, graduate students prepared to pursue further study at the baccalaureate or graduate level, or to join the STEM workforce; 2) dissemination of successful educational models and methods for STEM education in a primarily Native American, poverty level, female community within a decentralized Tribal College campus setting; and 3) advancing scientific understanding in areas relevant to the Oglala Tribal Nation including: the effects of climate variability on the ecology of midwestern rangeland steams, advances in sustainable housing, biofuels and medicinal plant extract processing, air and water quality analysis, the conservation status and genetics of box turtles and the health and behavior of bison, and descriptions of the stratigraphy Eocene and Miocene aged terrestrial deposits and fossils by researching and publishing on these items in peer-reviewed journals with academic and tribal program collaborators.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: TRIBAL COLLEGE & UNIVERS PROGR | Award Amount: 495.00K | Year: 2016
A goal of the Tribal Colleges and Universities Program (TCUP) is to increase the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) instructional and research capacities of specific institutions of higher education that serve the Nations indigenous students. The PEEC-II track provides support for studies or educational research conducted by institutions that have had earlier Pre-Engineering Education Collaborative (PEEC) awards. The intent of PEEC-II is to capture, analyze, and disseminate the impact of these awards on the participating institutions, faculty, or students, and their communities. PEEC and PEEC-II are partnerships between TCUP and the Directorate for Engineering.
During PEEC-I, Oglala Lakota College (OLC) in conjunction with collaborators the College of Engineering at the South Dakota State University (SDSU) and the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSMT), referred to as OLC/SDSU/SDSMT PEEC (OSSPEEC), established infrastructure and capacity for students entering OLC to graduate from SDSU or SDSMT with engineering degrees. In PEEC-II, they will investigate the impact of the OSSPEEC model, which emphasizes the importance of experiential learning, incorporation of the Lakota world view and cultural perspective in engineering learning and decision making, and development of self-confidence in solving engineering problems.
The intellectual merit of this project lies in understanding the value of the OSSPEEC model and what factors lead to American Indian success in pre-engineering and engineering programs. The integrated research and experiential learning aspects of the project have the potential to generate knowledge related to water resources and geological engineering on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. The broader impacts of this project will be 1) increased diversity in a globally engaged engineering workforce, 2) expanded tribal ability to address issues related to land use, drinking water, and sustainable housing and food production, and 3) a model of culturally centered classroom activities and relevant co-curricular research, project and maker activities.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: TRIBAL COLLEGE & UNIVERS PROGR | Award Amount: 191.57K | Year: 2012
Little is known about ornate box turtles in South Dakota and further research linked directly to defining effective conservation programs are critically needed. This research implements an integrative conservation approach to achieve the following objectives: 1) Assist South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks (SDGFP) in implementing the South Dakota Wildlife Action Plan, 2) Estimate the home range and the geographic range of ornate box turtles in South Dakota through the use of ecological niche modeling, 3) Document macro- and microhabitat use, 4) Describe movements and document daily and seasonal activity periods, and 5) Estimate gene flow among local populations using a landscape genetics approach.
This research will improve the research experience for Native American undergraduate students at Oglala Lakota College(OLC) by providing training in ecological field research delivering hands-on, place-based STEM instruction and will facilitate the advancement of Native American student education by bridging OLC undergraduate students interested in Conservation Biology to the Master of Science in Integrative Genomics (MSIG) at the Black Hill State University(BHSU).
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2011
Field to the Fair is a collaboration between Oglala Lakota College (OLC) and South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T) to establish and strengthen the geosciences learning path for middle and high school Native American students. Fifteen Native Americans from the Pine Ridge Reservation, fifteen Native Americans from the Rapid City area, and science teachers from both locations participate in a common field-camp experience designed to expose them to a variety of research and career opportunities in Earth and atmospheric sciences and to trigger their interest in the same. An adjunct goal is to increase community awareness about the need to encourage Native American youth to plan for their careers and education.
The camp experience leads into the development of a science fair project. Throughout the school year following the summer field camp, the 30 Native American participants are mentored by undergraduate and graduate students from OLC and SDSM&T as they prepare for the Pine Ridge Science Fair and High Plains Regional Science and Engineering Fair. Projects are presented at the Lakota Nation Invitational in December to reach a broader audience of Native Americans.
The expected outcomes include: 1) Educate American Indian students and members of their extended families about the available opportunities for Native American students on the OLC and SDSM&T campuses through summer-camp, followed by the preparation of science fair projects; 2) Solidify and sustain mentoring experiences for the Native American students on the SDSM&T and OLC campuses in the preparation of the science fair projects; 3) Create for South Dakota a replicable model for collaboration between local school districts and higher education for the purpose of fielding teams of mentors to serve middle/high school students; 4) Engage participants in learning and using the Lakota language in their science projects, to enhance their understanding of traditional knowledge of the Earth and environment; and 5) Improve access for American Indians to the geosciences by connecting research to the immediate and tangible world.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 1.25M | Year: 2010
Oglala Lakota College (OLC) proposes to extend and enhance its capability to
deliver the first two years of a Bachelor of Science degree program in engineering. This
capability will be developed through a Pre-Engineering Education Collaborative (PEEC)
established with the College of Engineering at the South Dakota State University (SDSU) and the
South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSMT), and is referred to as the
OLC/SDSU/SDSMT PEEC (OSSPEEC). The project will establish collaborative offerings of
gateway and bottleneck courses that occur in the first two years of engineering curricula coupled
with on-reservation hands-on laboratory and service learning experiences on the PRR that will
increase Native American student retention in pre-engineering and engineering programs across
South Dakota. A major result of this project will be the establishment of a complete two-year pre-
engineering curriculum at OLC, which will enable our students to enter any four-year
undergraduate engineering program at the junior level. Further, this project will make an
additional unique or radical step in the transformation of classical engineering education at the
state colleges participating in the collaboration.
We propose to collaborate to develop and offer the courses required for an integrated two-year
pre-engineering program at OLC and to increase the success of OLC transfer and other Native
American students at SDSU and SDSMT through shared research, internship experiences, and
community building in the third and fourth years of an engineering program. The project will be
unique in the United States in that during the collaborative process of building OLCs pre-
engineering capacity, OLCs faculty and students will be helping to transform the concept of the
first two years of the engineering curriculum at SDSU and SDSMT. This will occur through the
integration of project based service learning and undergraduate research projects on the Pine
Ridge Reservation, which will involve professors and cohorts of students from SDSU and
SDSMT. Also, these projects will cultivate closer ties among our institutions and OST Tribal
Agencies through collaborative summer research and internship opportunities on the Pine Ridge
Reservation that will lead to the development of future collaborative NSF research proposals.