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North Bethesda, MD, United States

Li D.,Office of Vaccines Research and Review | Mattoo P.,Office of Vaccines Research and Review | Keller J.E.,Office of Vaccines Research and Review
Biologicals | Year: 2012

Hyperimmune monovalent antitoxins to botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and B have been produced by immunizing horses with newly developed formalin toxoids. After primary immunization, horses developed acceptable prophylactic antibody titers (1-5 IU/mL). Three horses received additional toxoid booster injections to induce hyperimmune antibody titers with antitoxin-A and antitoxin-B titers reaching peaks of approximately 2000 IU/mL and 150-625 IU/mL, respectively. Titers were quantified throughout the process by antigen-capture ELISA and by in-vivo neutralization. ELISA titers and neutralization titers correlated (R 2 ~0.62-0.92), however, unique correlations between in-vitro and in-vivo titers were observed for each horse. Monovalent antitoxin pools were made by combining plasma that had been collected twice via plasmaphoresis several months after primary immunization. Neutralizing units were established for each pool relative to the current US and WHO reference standards. Titers were determined at the L +/10 and L +/40 toxin dose for Toxin types A and B, respectively, and U.S. and international units were assigned to each monovalent antitoxin. Avidity of the new Anti-A pool was equivalent to the WHO Anti-A reference at the L +, L +/10 and L +/30 dose. Each monovalent plasma pool failed to cross-neutralize other botulinum neurotoxin serotypes indicating a high degree of specificity of each antitoxin for the toxin serotype used during immunization. © 2012.

Kumari S.,Office of Vaccines Research and Review | Crim R.L.,Office of Vaccines Research and Review | Kulkarni A.,Office of Vaccines Research and Review | Audet S.A.,Office of Vaccines Research and Review | And 4 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2014

The nucleoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV-N) is immunogenic and elicits an IgG response following infection. The RSV-N gene was cloned into a mammalian expression vector, pREN2, and the expressed luciferase-tagged protein (Ruc-N) detected anti-RSV-N-specific IgG antibodies using a high-throughput immunoprecipitation method (the luciferase immunoprecipitation system [LIPS]-NRSV assay). The specificity of the assay was evaluated using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and monospecific pre- and postimmunization rabbit antisera. Blood serum samples from chimpanzees and humans with proven/probable RSV infection were also tested. The pre- and postimmunization serum samples from rabbits given human metapneumovirus (HMPV) or measles virus were negative when tested by the LIPS-NRSV assay, while antisera obtained after immunization with either the RSV-A or RSV-B strain gave positive signals in a dose-dependent manner. RSV-N MAb 858-3 gave a positive signal in the LIPS-N RSV assay, while MAbs against other paramyxovirus nucleoproteins or RSV-F or RSV-G did not. Serum samples from chimpanzees simultaneously immunized with vaccinia-RSV-F and vaccinia-RSV-G recombinant viruses were negative in the LIPS-NRSV assay; however, anti-RSV-N IgG responses were detected following subsequent RSV challenge. Seven of the 12 infants who were seronegative at 9 months of age had detectable anti-RSV-N antibodies when they were retested at 15 to 18 months of age. The LIPS-NRSV assay detects specific anti-RSV-N IgG responses that may be used as a biomarker of RSV infection. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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