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Rosenberg A.S.,Office of Biotechnology Products | Pariser A.R.,Office of Translational science | Diamond B.,Feinstein Institute for Medical Research | Yao L.,Office of New Drugs | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Immunology | Year: 2016

Antibody responses to life saving therapeutic protein products, such as enzyme replacement therapies (ERT) in the setting of lysosomal storage diseases, have nullified product efficacy and caused clinical deterioration and death despite treatment with immune-suppressive therapies. Moreover, in some autoimmune diseases, pathology is mediated by a robust antibody response to endogenous proteins such as is the case in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, mediated by antibodies to Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF). In this work, we make the case that in such settings, when the antibody response is high titered, sustained, and refractory to immune suppressive treatments, the antibody response is mediated by long-lived plasma cells which are relatively unperturbed by immune suppressants including rituximab. However, long-lived plasma cells can be targeted by proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib. Recent reports of successful reversal of antibody responses with bortezomib in the settings of ERT and Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) argue that the safety and efficacy of such plasma cell targeting agents should be evaluated in larger scale clinical trials to delineate the risks and benefits of such therapies in the settings of antibody-mediated adverse effects to therapeutic proteins and autoantibody mediated pathology. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc.

McMahon A.W.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Levenson M.S.,Office of Translational science | McEvoy B.W.,Office of Translational science | Mosholder A.D.,Center for Drug Evaluation and Research | Murphy D.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Pediatrics | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk, by age group, of serious asthma-related events with long-acting β 2-adrenergic receptor agonists marketed in the United States for asthma. METHODS: The US Food and Drug Administration performed a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials comparing the risk of LABA use with no LABA use for patients 4 to 11, 12 to 17, 18 to 64, and older than 64 years old. The effects of age on a composite of asthma-related deaths, intubations, and hospitalizations (asthma composite index) and the effects of concomitant inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use were analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred ten trials with 60 954 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The composite event incidence difference for all ages was 6.3 events per 1000 patient-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-10.3) for using LABAs compared with not using LABAs. The largest incidence difference was observed for the 4- to 11-year age group (30.4 events per 1000 patient-years [95% CI: 5.7-55.1]). Differences according to age were statistically significant (P=.020). Results for the subgroup of patients with concomitant ICS use (n = 36 210) were similar to the overall results; with assigned ICSs (n = 15 192), the incidence difference was 0.4 events per 1000 patient-years (95% CI: -3.8 to 4.6), and there was no statistically significant difference according to age group. CONCLUSIONS: The excess of serious asthma-related events attributable to LABAs was greatest among children. Additional data are needed to assess risks of LABA use for children with simultaneous ICS use. Copyright © 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Sridhara R.,Office of Translational science | Johnson J.R.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Justice R.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Keegan P.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2010

Background The Office of Oncology Drug Products (OODP) in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the US Food and Drug Administration began reviewing marketing applications for oncological and hematologic indications in July 2005. We conducted an overview of products that were reviewed by the OODP for marketing approval and the regulatory actions taken during July 2005 to December 2007.MethodsWe identified all applications that were reviewed by the OODP from July 1, 2005, through December 31, 2007, and reviewed the actions that OODP took. We also sought the basis for the actions taken, including the clinical trial design, endpoints used, patient accrual in the trial(s) supporting approval, and the type of regulatory approval.ResultsDuring the study period, the OODP reviewed marketing applications for 60 new indications and took regulatory action on 58 indications. Regulatory action was based on a risk-benefit evaluation of the data submitted with each application. Products that demonstrated efficacy and had an acceptable risk-benefit ratio were granted either regular or accelerated marketing approval for use in the specific indication that was studied. Regular approval was based on endpoints that demonstrated that the drug provided clinical benefit as evidenced by a longer or better life or a favorable effect on an established surrogate for a longer or better life. Accelerated approval was based on a less well-established surrogate endpoint that was reasonably likely to predict a longer or better life. Of the 53 new indications that were approved during the study period, 39 received regular approval, nine received accelerated approval, and five were converted from accelerated to regular approval. Five applications were not approved, and two applications were withdrawn before any regulatory action was taken. Eighteen of the 53 indications that were approved were for new molecular entities.ConclusionDuring the study period, regulatory action was taken on 58 of the 60 marketing applications. Fifty-three applications were approved. A variety of clinical trial endpoints were used in the approval trials.

Khozin S.,FDA | Blumenthal G.M.,FDA | Zhang L.,Office of Biostatistics | Tang S.,Office of Biostatistics | And 16 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2015

On April 29, 2014, the FDA granted accelerated approval to ceritinib (ZYKADIA; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation), a breakthrough therapy-designated drug, for the treatment of patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have progressed on or are intolerant to crizotinib. The approval was based on a single-Arm multicenter trial enrolling 163 patients with metastatic ALK-positive NSCLC who had disease progression on (91%) or intolerance to crizotinib. Patients received ceritinib at a starting dose of 750 mg orally once daily. The objective response rate (ORR) by a blinded independent review committee was 44% (95% CI, 36-52), and the median duration of response (DOR) was 7.1 months. The ORR by investigator assessment was similar. Safety was evaluated in 255 patients. The most common adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities included diarrhea (86%), nausea (80%), increased alanine transaminase (80%), increased aspartate transaminase (75%), vomiting (60%), increased glucose (49%), and increased lipase (28%). Although 74% of patients required at least one dose reduction or interruption due to adverse reactions, the discontinuation rate due to adverse reactions was low (10%). With this safety profile, the benefit-risk analysis was considered favorable because of the clinically meaningful ORR and DOR. © 2015 AACR.

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