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Mabry R.M.,Office of the WHO Representative | Mabry R.M.,University of Queensland | Reeves M.M.,University of Queensland | Eakin E.G.,University of Queensland | Owen N.,University of Queensland
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2010

Rapid socioeconomic development in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) has resulted in demographic and epidemiological transitions, with obesity, diabetes and other chronic diseases becoming the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. This emerging disease pattern is often attributed to physically inactive lifestyles. Given that there is no consolidated evidence on physical activity participation, we reviewed studies to examine prevalence and gender differences among GCC adults. PubMed, CINAHL and reference list searches identified eight relevant studies. Based on the best-available data, the prevalence of adults being physically active for at least 150 min week -1 (based on the international standard definition) ranged from 39.0% to 42.1% for men and 26.3% to 28.4% for women. Men were significantly more active than were women. Prevalence estimates for participation in physical activity in the GCC States are considerably lower than those for many developed countries. Studies using standardized methodologies with nationally representative samples are urgently required. Identifying prevalence and gender variations provides the basis for understanding the unique socio-cultural and environmental factors contributing to physical inactivity among adults in the countries of the GCC. This understanding must then inform population-health strategies to address the rising prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases. © 2009 International Association for the Study of Obesity. Source

Mabry R.M.,Office of the WHO Representative | Mabry R.M.,University of Queensland | Reeves M.M.,University of Queensland | Eakin E.G.,University of Queensland | Owen N.,University of Queensland
Diabetic Medicine | Year: 2010

Aims To systematically review studies documenting the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among men and women in Member States of the Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC; Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) - countries in which obesity, Type 2 diabetes and related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent. Methods A search was conducted on PubMed and CINAHL using the term 'metabolic syndrome' and the country name of each GCC Member State. The search was limited to studies published in the English language. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and/or International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated based on four criteria: a national-level population sample; equal gender representation; robustness of the sample size; an explicit sampling methodology. Results PubMed, CINAHL and reference list searches identified nine relevant studies. Only four were considered high quality and found that, for men, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome ranged from 20.7% to 37.2% (ATPIII definition) and from 29.6% to 36.2% (IDF definition); and, for women, from 32.1% to 42.7% (ATPIII definition) and from 36.1% to 45.9% (IDF definition). Conclusions Overall, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the GCC states is some 10-15% higher than in most developed countries, with generally higher prevalence rates for women. Preventive strategies will require identifying socio-demographic and environmental correlates (particularly those influencing women) and addressing modifiable risk behaviours, including lack of physical activity, prolonged sitting time and dietary intake. © 2010 Diabetes UK. Source

Mabry R.M.,Office of the WHO Representative | Mabry R.M.,University of Queensland | Winkler E.A.H.,University of Queensland | Reeves M.M.,University of Queensland | And 2 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2012

Most findings on associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with the metabolic syndrome are from developed countries; thus, we examined these relationships in adults from Sur, Oman. The Sur Healthy Lifestyle Survey (n = 1,335) used the World Health Organization (WHO) Stepwise methodology to assess chronic disease risk factors. Odds ratios for the metabolic syndrome were estimated using logistic regression models for domains of physical activity (work, transport, and leisure) and sitting time, and adjusted for confounding variables. Compared to their counterparts doing the least physical activity, lower odds of the metabolic syndrome were observed among those with higher work activity (0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45, 0.80) and transport activity (0.69; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.00), but not leisure activity (0.91; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.32). Odds of the metabolic syndrome were higher in those who sat for ≥6 h daily compared to <3 h daily (odds ratio = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.44), but not after further adjustment for physical activity. This is the first evidence from the Arabian Gulf on associations of physical activity and sitting time with the metabolic syndrome and provides empirical evidence to inform national physical activity guidelines, policies and programs. Source

Zuo S.,Office of the WHO Representative | Cairns L.,Office of the WHO Representative | Hutin Y.,Office of the WHO Representative | Liang X.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 6 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2015

Background: To develop a successful model for accelerating measles elimination in poor areas of China, we initiated a seven-year project in Guizhou, one of the poorest provinces, with reported highest measles incidence of 360 per million population in 2002. Methods: Project strategies consisted of strengthening routine immunization services, enforcement of school entry immunization requirements at kindergarten and school, conducting supplemental measles immunization activities (SIAs), and enhancing measles surveillance. We measured coverage of measles containing vaccines (MCV) by administrative reporting and population-based sample surveys, systematic random sampling surveys, and convenience sampling surveys for routine immunization services, school entry immunization, and SIAs respectively. We measured impact using surveillance based measles incidence. Results: Routine immunization coverage of the 1st dose of MCV (MCV1) increased from 82% to 93%, while 2nd dose of MCV (MCV2) coverage increased from 78% to 91%. Enforcement of school entry immunization requirements led to an increase in MCV2 coverage from 36% on primary school entry in 2004 to 93% in 2009. Province-wide SIAs achieved coverage greater than 90%. The reported annual incidence of measles dropped from 200 to 300 per million in 2003 to 6 per million in 2009, and sustained at 0.9-2.2 per million in 2010-2013. Conclusions: This project found that a package of strategies including periodic SIAs, strengthened routine immunization, and enforcing school entry immunization requirements, was an effective approach toward achieving and sustaining measles elimination in less-developed area of China. © 2015. Source

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