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Bethel, AK, United States

Hueffer K.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Parkinson A.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Gerlach R.,Office of the State Veterinarian | Berner J.,Community Health Services
International Journal of Circumpolar Health | Year: 2013

Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/ cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1) determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2) conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3) improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4) improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5) improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations. © 2013 Karsten Hueffer et al. Source

Miller M.,University of Cape Town | Buss P.,Veterinary Wildlife Services | Klerk-Lorist L.-M.D.,Office of the State Veterinarian | Hofmeyr J.,Veterinary Wildlife Services | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2016

Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) have been implicated as potential maintenance hosts of Mycobacterium bovis. Our preliminary investigation of bovine tuberculosis in three warthogs describes pathologic findings and associated positive serologic results in two in- fected animals. This demonstrates the potential use of serodiagnostic tests for M. bovis infection in this species. © Wildlife Disease Association 2016. Source

Castrodale L.J.,Section of Epidemiology | Gerlach R.F.,Office of the State Veterinarian | Xavier C.M.,Section of Laboratories | Smith B.J.,Section of Epidemiology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2013

Alaska public and environmental health authorities investigated a cluster of campylobacteriosis cases among people who had consumed raw, unpasteurized milk obtained from a cow-share program in Alaska. Although raw milk is not permitted by law to be offered commercially, consumers can enter into cow-share agreements whereby they contribute funds for the upkeep of cows and in turn receive a share of the milk for their personal use. Laboratory testing of stool specimens collected from ill persons and from cows on the farm revealed an indistinguishable strain of Campylobacter. In this outbreak, numerous confirmed and suspected cases were not among cow shareholders; therefore, these individuals had not been advised of the potential health hazards associated with consumption of raw milk nor were they informed of the outbreak developments. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection. Source

Miller M.,Palm Beach Zoo | Joubert J.,Veterinary Wildlife Services | Mathebula N.,Veterinary Wildlife Services | De Klerk-Lorist L.-M.,Office of the State Veterinarian | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2012

Bovine tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, has become established in Kruger National Park, South Africa, in the cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population and in other species. TB in prey species has resulted in infection and morbidity in the resident lion (Panthera leo) prides. The only validated live animal test currently available for lions is the intradermal tuberculin test. Because this test requires capture twice, 72 hr apart, of free-ranging lions to read results, it is logistically difficult to administer in a large ecosystem. Therefore, development of a rapid animal-side screening assay would be ideal in providing information for wildlife managers, veterinarians, and researchers working with free-living lion prides. This study reports preliminary descriptive results from an ongoing project evaluating two serologic tests for M. bovis (ElephantTB Stat-Pak and dual path platform VetTB). Disease status was determined by postmortem culture and presence of pathologic lesions in 14 free-ranging lions. Seropositivity was found to be associated with M. bovis infection. Extended field studies are underway to validate these rapid animal-side immunoassays for antemortem screening tests for TB in lions. © 2012 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Meade B.J.,University of Kentucky | Timoney P.J.,University of Kentucky | Donahue J.M.,University of Kentucky | Branscum A.J.,University of Kentucky | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2010

In 1998, a newly identified bacterium Taylorella asinigenitalis was isolated from the external genitalia and reproductive tracts of nurse mares, a stallion and donkey jacks in Kentucky. An extensive regulatory effort was implemented to contain the outbreak including the tracing and testing of 232 horses and donkeys on 58 premises. T. asinigenitalis was isolated from the reproductive tract of 10 adult equids, including two donkey jacks, one Paint Quarter-horse stallion and seven draft-type breeding mares. None of the infected horses had clinical signs of reproductive tract disease. The odds of being culture positive were 20 times greater for a mare bred to a donkey than for a mare bred to a stallion. Approximately 18% of mares bred to either a carrier stallion or donkey jack were confirmed culture positive. Seventy-one percent of infected mares required more than one course of treatment to clear the organism from their reproductive tracts and one mare harbored the organism for more than 300 days. © 2010. Source

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