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North Bethesda, MD, United States

Zhang Y.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Conti M.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Malide D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Dong F.,Duke University | And 12 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012

We have generated 3 mouse lines, each with a different mutation in the non-muscle myosin II-A gene, Myh9 (R702C, D1424N, and E1841K). Each line develops MYH9-related disease similar to that found in human patients. R702C mutant human cDNA fused with green fluorescent protein was introduced into the first coding exon of Myh9, and D1424N and E1841K mutations were introduced directly into the corresponding exons. Homozygous R702C mice die at embryonic day 10.5-11.5, whereas homozygous D1424N and E1841K mice are viable. All heterozygous and homozygous mutant mice show macrothrombocytopenia with prolonged bleeding times, a defect in clot retraction, and increased extramedullary megakaryocytes. Studies of cultured megakaryocytes and live-cell imaging of megakaryocytes in the BM show that heterozygous R702C megakaryocytes form fewer and shorter proplatelets with less branching and larger buds. The results indicate that disrupted proplatelet formation contributes to the macrothrombocytopenia in mice and most probably in humans. We also observed premature cataract formation, kidney abnormalities, including albuminuria, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and progressive kidney disease, and mild hearing loss. Our results show that heterozygous mice with mutations in the myosin motor or filament-forming domain manifest similar hematologic, eye, and kidney phenotypes to humans with MYH9-related disease.

Amarnath S.,National Cancer Institute | Foley J.E.,National Cancer Institute | Farthing D.E.,National Cancer Institute | Gress R.E.,National Cancer Institute | And 13 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2015

The use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSC) in the treatment of alloimmune and autoimmune conditions has generated much interest, yet an understanding of the therapeutic mechanism remains elusive. We therefore explored immune modulation by a clinical-grade BMSC product in a model of human-into-mouse xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease (x-GVHD) mediated by human CD4+ Th1 cells. BMSC reversed established, lethal x-GVHD through marked inhibition of Th1 cell effector function. Gene marking studies indicated BMSC engraftment was limited to the lung; furthermore, there was no increase in regulatory T cells, thereby suggesting a paracrine mechanism of BMSC action. BMSC recipients had increased serum CD73 expressing exosomes that promoted adenosine accumulation ex vivo. Importantly, immune modulation mediated by BMSC was fully abrogated by pharmacologic therapy with an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist. To investigate the potential clinical relevance of these mechanistic findings, patient serum samples collected pre- and post-BMSC treatment were studied for exosome content: CD73 expressing exosomes promoting adenosine accumulation were detected in post-BMSC samples. In conclusion, BMSC effectively modulate experimental GVHD through a paracrine mechanism that promotes adenosine-based immune suppression. © 2015 Alpha Med Press.

McCully C.M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Pastakia D.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Bacher J.,Office of Research Services | Thomas III M.L.,Office of Research Services | And 7 more authors.
Comparative Medicine | Year: 2013

Pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas are aggressive brainstem tumors that fail to respond to treatment. We hypothesize that the protective features of the pons may hinder chemotherapeutic agents from entering pontine tissue compared with cortical brain tissue. To test this hypothesis, we developed a unique nonhuman primate model using microdialysis, a continuous in vivo extracellular sampling technique, to compare drug exposure concurrently in pontine tissue, cortical tissue, CSF, and plasma after intravenous administration of chemotherapeutic agents. The surgical coordinates and approach for microdialysis cannula-probe placement were determined in 5 adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by using MRI. Microdialysis cannulas-probes were implanted stereotactically in the brain, retrodialysis was performed to measure relative recovery, and a 1-h intravenous infusion of temozolomide was administered. Continuous microdialysis samples were collected from the pons and cortex over 4 h with concurrent serial plasma and CSF samples. Postsurgical verification of microdialysis cannula-probe placement was obtained via MRI in 3 macaques and by gross pathology in all 5 animals. The MRI-determined coordinates and surgical methodologies resulted in accurate microdialysis probe placement in the pons and cortex in 4 of the 5 macaques. Histologic examination from these 4 animals revealed negligible tissue damage to the pontine and cortical tissue from microdialysis. One macaque was maintained for 8 wk and had no deficits attributed to the procedure. This animal model allows for the determination of differences in CNS penetration of chemotherapeutic agents in the pons, cortex, and CSF after systemic drug administration. Copyright 2013 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

McCully C.M.L.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Bacher J.,Office of Research Services | MacAllister R.P.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Steffen-Smith E.A.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 4 more authors.
Comparative Medicine | Year: 2015

Rapid, serial, and humane collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in nonhuman primates (NHP) is an essential element of numerous research studies and is currently accomplished via two different models. The CSF reservoir model (FR) combines a catheter in the 4th ventricle with a flexible silastic reservoir to permit circulating CSF flow. The CSF lateral port model (LP) consists of a lateral ventricular catheter and an IV port that provides static access to CSF and volume restrictions on sample collection. The FR model is associated with an intensive, prolonged recovery and frequent postsurgical hydrocephalus and nonpatency, whereas the LP model is associated with an easier recovery. To maximize the advantages of both systems, we developed the CSF lateral reservoir model (LR), which combines the beneficial features of the 2 previous models but avoids their limitations by using a reservoir for circulating CSF flow combined with catheter placement in the lateral ventricle. Nine adult male rhesus monkeys were utilized in this study. Pre-surgical MRI was performed to determine the coordinates of the lateral ventricle and location of choroid plexus (CP). The coordinates were determined to avoid the CP and major blood vessels. The predetermined coordinates were 100% accurate, according to MRI validation. The LR system functioned successfully in 67% of cases for 221 d, and 44% remain functional at 426 to 510 d postoperatively. Compared with established models, our LR model markedly reduced postoperative complications and recovery time. Development of the LR model was successful in rhesus macaques and is a useful alternative to the FR and LP methods of CSF collection from nonhuman primates. Copyright 2015 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

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