Office of Preventive Medicine

Taipei, Taiwan

Office of Preventive Medicine

Taipei, Taiwan
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Chen M.-Y.,Office of Preventive Medicine | Lo Y.-C.,Office of Preventive Medicine | Chen W.-C.,Office of Preventive Medicine | Wang K.-F.,Centers for Disease Control | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

Recurrence after successful treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is challenging because of limited retreatment options. This study aimed to determine rates and predictors of MDR-TB recurrence after successful treatment in Taiwan. Recurrence rates were analyzed by time from treatment completion in 295 M DR-TB patients in a national cohort. Factors associated with MDR-TB recurrence were examined using a multivariate Cox regression analysis. Ten (3%) patients experienced MDR-TB recurrence during a median follow-up of 4.8 years. The overall recurrence rate was 0.6 cases per 1000 person-months. Cavitation on chest radiography was an independent predictor of recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 6.3; 95% CI, 1.2-34). When the analysis was restricted to 215 patients (73%) tested for second-line drug susceptibility, cavitation (aHR = 10.2; 95% CI, 1.2-89) and resistance patterns of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) or pre-XDR-TB (aHR = 7.3; 95% CI, 1.2-44) were associated with increased risk of MDR-TB recurrence. In Taiwan, MDR-TB patients with cavitary lesions and resistance patterns of XDR-TB or pre-XDR-TB are at the highest risk of recurrence. These have important implications for MDR-TB programs aiming to optimize post-treatment follow-up and early detection of recurrent MDR-TB. © 2017 Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Lo Y.-C.,Office of Preventive Medicine | Lo Y.-C.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Ji D.-D.,Center for Research | Ji D.-D.,National Yang Ming University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Sexually transmitted Entamoeba histolytica infection (EHI) has been increasingly recognized among men who have sex with men (MSM). We used the National Disease Surveillance Systems (NDSS) to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among adults with EHI and to determine the associated factors. Methodology: The NDSS collect demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of case patients through physician reports and public health interviews. EHI was confirmed by polymerase-chain-reaction assays, histopathology, or serology with documented liver abscess. We linked NDSS databases to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among noninstitutionalized Taiwanese adults with confirmed EHI during 2006–2013. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was used to determine associated factors. Principal findings:: Of noninstitutionalized adults with EHI, we identified prevalent HIV diagnosis in 210 (40%) of 524 males and one (1.7%) of 59 females, and incident HIV diagnosis in 71 (23%) of 314 males. MSM accounted for 183 (87%) and 64 (90%) of prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses in males, respectively. From 2006–2009 to 2010–2013, the prevalence of HIV diagnosis increased from 32% to 45% (P = 0.001) while the incidence of HIV diagnosis increased from 5.4 to 11.3 per 100 person-years (P = 0.001) among males with EHI. Incident HIV diagnosis was independently associated with a younger age, residing in metropolitan areas, hospitalization, previous syphilis, and engagement in oral, anal, or oral–anal sex before illness onset. Conclusions/significance: Prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses were increasingly identified among adult males in Taiwan, preferentially affecting younger urban MSM. Surveillance and risk-reduction interventions are recommended against the interplay of HIV epidemic and sexually transmitted EHI. © 2014 Lo et al.


Lo Y.-C.,Office of Preventive Medicine | Ji D.-D.,Center for Research | Hung C.-C.,National Taiwan University Hospital
PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted Entamoeba histolytica infection (EHI) has been increasingly recognized among men who have sex with men (MSM). We used the National Disease Surveillance Systems (NDSS) to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among adults with EHI and to determine the associated factors.METHODOLOGY: The NDSS collect demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of case patients through physician reports and public health interviews. EHI was confirmed by polymerase-chain-reaction assays, histopathology, or serology with documented liver abscess. We linked NDSS databases to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among noninstitutionalized Taiwanese adults with confirmed EHI during 2006-2013. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was used to determine associated factors.PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of noninstitutionalized adults with EHI, we identified prevalent HIV diagnosis in 210 (40%) of 524 males and one (1.7%) of 59 females, and incident HIV diagnosis in 71 (23%) of 314 males. MSM accounted for 183 (87%) and 64 (90%) of prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses in males, respectively. From 2006-2009 to 2010-2013, the prevalence of HIV diagnosis increased from 32% to 45% (P = 0.001) while the incidence of HIV diagnosis increased from 5.4 to 11.3 per 100 person-years (P = 0.001) among males with EHI. Incident HIV diagnosis was independently associated with a younger age, residing in metropolitan areas, hospitalization, previous syphilis, and engagement in oral, anal, or oral-anal sex before illness onset.CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses were increasingly identified among adult males in Taiwan, preferentially affecting younger urban MSM. Surveillance and risk-reduction interventions are recommended against the interplay of HIV epidemic and sexually transmitted EHI.


PubMed | Office of Preventive Medicine and Taipei Regional Office
Type: | Journal: BMC public health | Year: 2016

In February 2015 an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a distillery in Kinmen, Taiwan. At least 450 affected employees developed the symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting after attending a lunch banquet on 6 February. Epidemiological, laboratory and environmental investigations were conducted to identify the agent and source of this outbreak.A case-control study was carried out among lunch attendees from the distillery. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, food and beverage consumption in the lunch banquet was assessed, as well as demographic and clinical data of the exposed people. An outbreak case was defined as a diner who developed at least three following symptoms: diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, nausea, chills and/or weakness in the 72h following the lunch. Controls were defined as lunch attendees who did not have any of the above symptoms. Rectal swabs or stool samples of the symptomatic exposed diners and food handlers as well as food and environmental samples were collected to test potential bacteria and viruses. Norovirus was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. An environmental assessment, including environmental inspection of the restaurant and a review of work practices of food workers, was undertaken.Of 363 respondents with complete data, 169 met the case definition and 111 met the control definition. Consumption of pork liver in cold appetizers (adjusted odd ratio (aOR) 3.23; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26-8.30) and lamb chops (aOR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.74-9.11) were each associated with increased risk of illness. No cases but two asymptomatic food handlers who prepared or cooked the implicated foods tested positive for norovirus genotype I.6. Food and environmental samples were negative for any bacteria. Environmental assessment indicated that hand washing facilities were not properly accessible to food handlers. Inappropriate hygiene practices in food handlers may have contributed to food contamination.Our investigation suggests that etiological agent of this outbreak was norovirus. The food vehicles were pork liver and lamb chops, which may have been contaminated by asymptomatic infected food handlers. Strict adherence to hand hygiene practices and access to hand washing facilities should be reinforced to prevent such foodborne outbreaks.


PubMed | Office of Preventive Medicine and National Taiwan University Hospital
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

Data are limited on the effectiveness and safety of peginterferon plus ribavirin in HIV-infected Asian patients with acute or chronic HCV infection. HIV-infected Taiwanese patients with acute HCV infection received peginterferon plus weight-based ribavirin for 24 weeks (n=24), and those with chronic HCV genotype 1 or 6 (HCV-1/6) and HCV genotype 2 or 3 (HCV-2/3) infection received response-guided therapy for 12-72 and 24-48 weeks, respectively (n=92). The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response (SVR), defined as undetectable HCV RNA 24 weeks off-therapy. The SVR rates were 83% and 72% in patients with acute and chronic HCV infection (p=0.30), and 68% and 72% in patients with chronic HCV-1/6 and HCV-2/3 infection (p=0.48), respectively. While no factors predicted SVR in acute HCV and chronic HCV-2/3 infection, age (odds ratio [OR] per 1-year increase: 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78-0.99, p=0.04), HCV RNA (OR per 1-log10 increase: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.03-0.98, p=0.03), IL28B genotype (OR: 5.52, 95% CI: 1.55-12.2, p=0.02), and RVR (OR: 9.62, 95% CI: 3.89-15.3, p=0.007) predicted SVR in chronic HCV-1/6 infection. In conclusion, the SVR rates of peginterferon plus ribavirin for 24 weeks and for response-guided 12-72 weeks are satisfactory in HIV-infected Taiwanese patients with acute and chronic HCV infection.


PubMed | National Cheng Kung University, Office of Preventive Medicine, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Mahidol University and National Yang Ming University
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi | Year: 2015

We report a case of neurognathostomiasis in a Thai laborer for the first time in Taiwan. For patients with eosinophilic meningitis, neurognathostomiasis should be considered when brain image discloses subarachnoid or intracranial hemorrhage and when an appropriate exposure risk is available, especially a history of raw freshwater fish consumption in endemic areas, even a long time ago.


McKerr C.,Public Health England | Lo Y.-C.,Office of Preventive Medicine | Edeghere O.,Public Health England | Bracebridge S.,Public Health England
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

In Taiwan, around 1,500 cases of dengue fever are reported annually and incidence has been increasing over time. A national web-based Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NDSS) has been in operation since 1997 to monitor incidence and trends and support case and outbreak management. We present the findings of an evaluation of the NDSS to ascertain the extent to which dengue fever surveillance objectives are being achieved. We extracted the NDSS data on all laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012 to assess and describe key system attributes based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance evaluation guidelines. The system’s structure and processes were delineated and operational staff interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated and key demographic variables were summarised to describe reporting activity. Data completeness and validity were described across several variables. Of 5,072 laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 2010–2012, 4,740 (93%) were reported during July to December. The system was judged to be simple due to its minimal reporting steps. Data collected on key variables were correctly formatted and usable in > 90% of cases, demonstrating good data completeness and validity. The information collected was considered relevant by users with high acceptability. Adherence to guidelines for 24-hour reporting was 99%. Of 720 cases (14%) recorded as travel-related, 111 (15%) had an onset >14 days after return, highlighting the potential for misclassification. Information on hospitalization was missing for 22% of cases. The calculated PVP was 43%. The NDSS for dengue fever surveillance is a robust, well maintained and acceptable system that supports the collection of complete and valid data needed to achieve the surveillance objectives. The simplicity of the system engenders compliance leading to timely and accurate reporting. Completeness of hospitalization information could be further improved to allow assessment of severity of illness. To minimize misclassification, an algorithm to accurately classify travel cases should be established. © 2015 McKerr et al.


PubMed | Public Health England and Office of Preventive Medicine
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2015

In Taiwan, around 1,500 cases of dengue fever are reported annually and incidence has been increasing over time. A national web-based Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NDSS) has been in operation since 1997 to monitor incidence and trends and support case and outbreak management. We present the findings of an evaluation of the NDSS to ascertain the extent to which dengue fever surveillance objectives are being achieved.We extracted the NDSS data on all laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012 to assess and describe key system attributes based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance evaluation guidelines. The systems structure and processes were delineated and operational staff interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated and key demographic variables were summarised to describe reporting activity. Data completeness and validity were described across several variables.Of 5,072 laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 2010-2012, 4,740 (93%) were reported during July to December. The system was judged to be simple due to its minimal reporting steps. Data collected on key variables were correctly formatted and usable in > 90% of cases, demonstrating good data completeness and validity. The information collected was considered relevant by users with high acceptability. Adherence to guidelines for 24-hour reporting was 99%. Of 720 cases (14%) recorded as travel-related, 111 (15%) had an onset >14 days after return, highlighting the potential for misclassification. Information on hospitalization was missing for 22% of cases. The calculated PVP was 43%.The NDSS for dengue fever surveillance is a robust, well maintained and acceptable system that supports the collection of complete and valid data needed to achieve the surveillance objectives. The simplicity of the system engenders compliance leading to timely and accurate reporting. Completeness of hospitalization information could be further improved to allow assessment of severity of illness. To minimize misclassification, an algorithm to accurately classify travel cases should be established.


Wei H.-Y.,Office of Preventive Medicine | Shu P.-Y.,Center for Diagnostics and Vaccine Development | Hung M.-N.,Office of Preventive Medicine
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2016

An unprecedented dengue outbreak involving more than 15,000 infections, including 136 dengue hemor-rhagic fever (DHF) cases and 20 fatalities, occurred in Taiwan in 2014. The median age of the DHF cases was 71 years (range: 4-92 years) and most of them (N = 100, 73.5%) had comorbidities, of which the majority were hypertension (56%) and diabetes mellitus (DM; 27%). Only approximately half of the DHF cases (59/136) were classified as severe dengue, based on the 2009 WHO-revised dengue classification. The fatality rate for this DHF outbreak was 14.7%. DM (odds ratio [OR] = 3.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-10.63) and presentation with severe plasma leakage (OR = 6.42, 95% CI = 1.76-23.63) were independent risk factors for fatality. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


PubMed | Center for Diagnostics and Vaccine Development and Office of Preventive Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene | Year: 2016

An unprecedented dengue outbreak involving more than 15,000 infections, including 136 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases and 20 fatalities, occurred in Taiwan in 2014. The median age of the DHF cases was 71 years (range: 4-92 years) and most of them (N = 100, 73.5%) had comorbidities, of which the majority were hypertension (56%) and diabetes mellitus (DM; 27%). Only approximately half of the DHF cases (59/136) were classified as severe dengue, based on the 2009 WHO-revised dengue classification. The fatality rate for this DHF outbreak was 14.7%. DM (odds ratio [OR] = 3.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-10.63) and presentation with severe plasma leakage (OR = 6.42, 95% CI = 1.76-23.63) were independent risk factors for fatality.

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