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Hung M.-N.,Office of Preventive Medicine | Huang H.-W.,National Cheng Kung University | Dekumyoy P.,Mahidol University | Pakdee W.,Mahidol University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association | Year: 2015

We report a case of neurognathostomiasis in a Thai laborer for the first time in Taiwan. For patients with eosinophilic meningitis, neurognathostomiasis should be considered when brain image discloses subarachnoid or intracranial hemorrhage and when an appropriate exposure risk is available, especially a history of raw freshwater fish consumption in endemic areas, even a long time ago. © 2013 .

Lo Y.-C.,Office of Preventive Medicine | Lo Y.-C.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Ji D.-D.,Center for Research | Ji D.-D.,National Yang Ming University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Sexually transmitted Entamoeba histolytica infection (EHI) has been increasingly recognized among men who have sex with men (MSM). We used the National Disease Surveillance Systems (NDSS) to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among adults with EHI and to determine the associated factors. Methodology: The NDSS collect demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of case patients through physician reports and public health interviews. EHI was confirmed by polymerase-chain-reaction assays, histopathology, or serology with documented liver abscess. We linked NDSS databases to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among noninstitutionalized Taiwanese adults with confirmed EHI during 2006–2013. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was used to determine associated factors. Principal findings:: Of noninstitutionalized adults with EHI, we identified prevalent HIV diagnosis in 210 (40%) of 524 males and one (1.7%) of 59 females, and incident HIV diagnosis in 71 (23%) of 314 males. MSM accounted for 183 (87%) and 64 (90%) of prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses in males, respectively. From 2006–2009 to 2010–2013, the prevalence of HIV diagnosis increased from 32% to 45% (P = 0.001) while the incidence of HIV diagnosis increased from 5.4 to 11.3 per 100 person-years (P = 0.001) among males with EHI. Incident HIV diagnosis was independently associated with a younger age, residing in metropolitan areas, hospitalization, previous syphilis, and engagement in oral, anal, or oral–anal sex before illness onset. Conclusions/significance: Prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses were increasingly identified among adult males in Taiwan, preferentially affecting younger urban MSM. Surveillance and risk-reduction interventions are recommended against the interplay of HIV epidemic and sexually transmitted EHI. © 2014 Lo et al.

McKerr C.,Public Health England | Lo Y.-C.,Office of Preventive Medicine | Edeghere O.,Public Health England | Bracebridge S.,Public Health England
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

In Taiwan, around 1,500 cases of dengue fever are reported annually and incidence has been increasing over time. A national web-based Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NDSS) has been in operation since 1997 to monitor incidence and trends and support case and outbreak management. We present the findings of an evaluation of the NDSS to ascertain the extent to which dengue fever surveillance objectives are being achieved. We extracted the NDSS data on all laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012 to assess and describe key system attributes based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance evaluation guidelines. The system’s structure and processes were delineated and operational staff interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated and key demographic variables were summarised to describe reporting activity. Data completeness and validity were described across several variables. Of 5,072 laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 2010–2012, 4,740 (93%) were reported during July to December. The system was judged to be simple due to its minimal reporting steps. Data collected on key variables were correctly formatted and usable in > 90% of cases, demonstrating good data completeness and validity. The information collected was considered relevant by users with high acceptability. Adherence to guidelines for 24-hour reporting was 99%. Of 720 cases (14%) recorded as travel-related, 111 (15%) had an onset >14 days after return, highlighting the potential for misclassification. Information on hospitalization was missing for 22% of cases. The calculated PVP was 43%. The NDSS for dengue fever surveillance is a robust, well maintained and acceptable system that supports the collection of complete and valid data needed to achieve the surveillance objectives. The simplicity of the system engenders compliance leading to timely and accurate reporting. Completeness of hospitalization information could be further improved to allow assessment of severity of illness. To minimize misclassification, an algorithm to accurately classify travel cases should be established. © 2015 McKerr et al.

Liu D.-P.,Epidemic Intelligence Center | Liu D.-P.,National Taiwan University | Wang T.-A.,Centers for Disease Control | Huang W.-T.,Office of Preventive Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2016

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the disease burden and economic impacts of human nonpolio enteroviruses (NPEV) and enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection in Taiwan. Materials and methods: We included children under five years old (n = 983,127-1,118,649) with ICD-9-CM codes 0740 (herpangina) or 0743 (hand-foot-and-mouth disease) from the 2006 to 2010 National Health Insurance Database. Severity of enterovirus infection was assessed from outpatient/emergency visits, hospitalization (with/without intensive care unit [ICU] admission), infection with severe complications, and death. We estimated medical costs and indirect costs from the societal perspective. Results: The annual rates of NPEV events for children under five years old ranged from 13.9% to 38.4%, of which 5.1-8.8% were hospitalized. EV-A71 accounted for 7.8% of all NPEV medical costs, but 79.1% of NPEV ICU costs. Travel costs and productivity loss of caregivers were $37.1 (range: $24.5-$64.7) million per year. These costs were not higher in the EV-A71 dominant year ($34.4 million) compared with those in the other years. Productivity losses resulting from premature mortality by NPEV infection were $0.8 (range: $0.0-$2.9) million per year, of which 96.3% were caused by EV-A71. Conclusions: Diseases associated with NPEV other than EV-A71 were responsible for most of the medical expenses. In addition, caregiver productivity loss by high rates of NPEV infection impacted the society much more than medical costs. A multi-valent vaccine that includes EV-A71 and other serotypes, for example coxsackievirus A16, may be beneficial to the health of children in Taiwan. © 2015 The Authors.

Wu H.-H.,Office of Preventive Medicine | Chen Y.-T.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital | Chen Y.-T.,Taipei Medical University Hospital | Shih C.-J.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background. The association between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and nontyphoid salmonellosis (NTS) continues to be debated. The current study was designed to determine the association between use of oral PPIs and the diagnosis of NTS. Methods. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 2000 to 2010 was searched for cases of NTS, defined by the International Classification of Disease, Ninth revision, Clinical Modification. A nested case-control study in hospitalized population was conducted using 4 controls for each case patient (14 736 case patients and 58 944 controls), matched for age, month and year of entry, Charlson comorbidity index score, and well-known predisposing factors for NTS, including autoimmune diseases, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, diabetes, cirrhosis, transplantation, gastrointestinal operations or diseases, and malignancies. Results. Persons with NTS had a higher rate of using oral PPIs within the prior year (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.95-2.24; P <.001). The association was greatest for current PPI use (adjusted OR, 5.39; 95% CI, 4.79-6.06; P <.001). Although use of H2-receptor antagonists (adjusted OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.71-1.98), antibiotics (5.21; 4.81-5.64), steroids (3.18; 2.99-3.39), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (2.37; 2.26-2.48) within the 30 days were also associated with NTS, the linkage between PPI use and NTS remained significant in the subgroup without these medications. Conclusions. The use of oral PPIs was associated with the occurrence of NTS. The risk waned with time after discontinuation. © The Author 2014.

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