Office of Policy Development and Research

Washington, DC, United States

Office of Policy Development and Research

Washington, DC, United States
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Fenelon A.,University of Maryland University College | Mayne P.,Brown University | Simon A.E.,Health-U | Rossen L.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2017

Objectives. To examine whether access to housing assistance is associated with better health among low-income adults. Methods. We used National Health Interview Survey data (1999-2012) linked to US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) administrative records (1999-2014) to examine differences in reported fair or poor health and psychological distress. We used multivariable models to compare those currently receiving HUD housing assistance (public housing, housing choice vouchers, and multifamily housing) with those who will receive housing assistance within 2 years (the average duration of HUD waitlists) to account for selection into HUD assistance. Results. We found reduced odds of fair or poor health for current public housing (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.57, 0.97) and multifamily housing (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.60, 0.95) residents compared with future residents. Public housing residents also had reduced odds of psychological distress (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.40, 0.86). These differences were not mediated by neighborhood-level characteristics, and we did not find any health benefits for current housing choice voucher recipients. Conclusions. Housing assistance is associated with improved health and psychological well-being for individuals entering public housing and multifamily housing programs.

Bostic R.W.,University of the Californias | Rudd E.C.,Office of Policy Development and Research | Sternthal M.J.,Deputy director of federal affairs
Health Affairs | Year: 2012

The link between federal housing policy and public health has been understood since the nineteenth century, when housing activists first sought to abolish slums and create healthful environments. This article describes how the Obama administration-building on these efforts and those that followed, including the Great Society programs of President Lyndon Johnson-has adopted a cross-sector approach that takes health considerations into account when formulating housing and community development policy. The federal Department of Housing and Urban Development fully embraces this "health in all policies" approach. Nonetheless, the administration's strategy faces challenges, including fiscal and political ones. Some of these challenges may be overcome by conducting quality research on how housing and community development policies affect health outcomes, and by developing a federal budget strategy that takes into account how investments in one sector contribute to cost savings in another. ©2012 Project HOPE- The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

McClure K.,University of Kansas | Taghavi L.B.,Office of Policy Development and Research
Housing Policy Debate | Year: 2015

In 2003, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) prepared a study of the location patterns of the Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) program. This study became an important baseline for the evaluation of the HCV program and its ability to serve the goal of poverty deconcentration. The study examined the ability of HCV households in the 50 largest metropolitan areas to make entry to a broad array of neighborhoods and to locate in high-opportunity neighborhoods with low levels of poverty.New data from HUD and the American Community Survey permit the study to be replicated. We find that vouchers continue to consume only a small portion of the housing stock, with relatively small amounts of spatial concentration. Unfortunately, only about one in five voucher households locate in low-poverty neighborhoods, and this share is rising only very slowly. If the nation wants to pursue poverty deconcentration through the HCV program, we cannot rely on the program, as it is now structured, to accomplish this goal. Additional incentives and constraints will be needed, similar to those that were part of the Gautreaux and Moving to Opportunity programs. © 2014, © 2014 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Ahrens K.A.,National Center for Health Statistics | Haley B.A.,Office of Policy Development and Research | Rossen L.M.,National Center for Health Statistics | Lloyd P.C.,National Center for Health Statistics | Aoki Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2016

Objectives. To compare blood lead levels (BLLs) among US children aged 1 to 5 years according to receipt of federal housing assistance. Methods. In our analyses, we used 2005 to 2012 data for National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) respondents thatwere linked to 1999 to 2014 administrative records from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). After we restricted the analysis to children with family income-To-poverty ratios below 200%, we compared geometricmean BLLs and the prevalence of BLLs of 3micrograms per deciliter or higheramongchildrenwhowerelivingin assisted housing at the time of theirNHANESblood draw (n = 151) with data for children who did not receive housing assistance (n = 1099). Results. After adjustment, children living in assisted housing had a significantly lower geometric mean BLL (1.44 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.31, 1.57) than comparable children who did not receive housing assistance (1.79 mg/dL; 95% CI = 1.59, 2.01; P < .01). The prevalence ratio for BLLs of 3 micrograms per deciliter or higher was 0.51 (95% CI = 0.33, 0.81; P < .01). Conclusions. Children aged 1 to 5 years during 2005 to 2012 who were living in HUD-Assisted housing had lower BLLs than expected given their demographic, socioeconomic, and family characteristics.

Honadle B.W.,Office of Policy Development and Research | Zapata M.A.,Portland State University | Auffrey C.,University of Cincinnati | vom Hofe R.,University of Cincinnati | Looye J.,University of Cincinnati
Evaluation and Program Planning | Year: 2014

This article describes a developmental evaluation and explains its impact on the Stronger Economies Together (SET) initiative of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in collaboration with the Nation's four Regional Rural Development Centers and Land-Grant universities. Through a dynamic process, this evaluation of the early phases of an initiative led to continuous program alterations based on feedback. The relationship of the evaluation team to the initiative's coordinating team enabled seamless transfer of observations, suggestions, and recommendations to decision makers. The multidisciplinary character of the evaluation team provided a diverse set of perspectives with a depth of subject matter and knowledge from relevant fields. One lesson is that developmental evaluators must be flexible, nimble, creative, and adaptive. When expected data are imperfect or nonexistent, the team must collect alternate information and make recommendations to improve data collection. As the initiative proceeded and modifications came about, the evaluation team had to recognize the changes in the program and focus on different questions. This experience with developmental evaluation provides insights into how interdisciplinary teams may need to change course and conduct a developmental evaluation when a formative evaluation was originally envisioned. © 2013.

Samet H.,Institute for Advanced Computer Studies | Sankaranarayanan J.,NEC Labs | Sankaranarayanan J.,University of Maryland University College | Lieberman M.D.,Johns Hopkins University | And 8 more authors.
Communications of the ACM | Year: 2014

The advantage of the map-query interface is that a map, coupled with the ability to vary the zoom level at which it is viewed, provides inherent granularity to a search process that facilitates approximate search. This capability distinguishes it from prevalent keyword-based conventional search methods that provide a limited facility for approximate searches that are realized primarily by permitting a match through a subset of the keywords. Being able to use spatial synonyms is important, as it enables users to search for data when they are not exactly sure what they seek or what the answer to their query should be. NewsStand's goal is to offer an alternative to the news-reading process and, more important, experience. Users can also constrain the spatial region and news sources; they need not be the same. This is a useful feature, as it enables users to see how one part of the world views events in another part of the world.

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