Maplewood, MN, United States
Maplewood, MN, United States

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Xiao Y.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Tutumluer E.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Qian Y.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Siekmeier J.,Office of Materials and Road Research
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2012

Aggregate gradation effects on strength and modulus characteristics of aggregate base-granular subbase materials used in Minnesota are described. The importance of specifying proper aggregate grading or particle size distribution has long been recognized for achieving satisfactory performance in pavement applications. In the construction of densegraded unbound aggregate base-subbase layers, well-graded gradation bands were often established years ago on the basis of the experience of the state transportation agency and may not have a direct link to mechanical performance. To improve specifications for superior performance targeted in the mechanistic-empirical pavement analysis and design framework, there is a need to understand how differences in aggregate gradations may affect unbound aggregate base-subbase behavior for site-specific design conditions. Aggregates with different gradations and material properties were compiled in a statewide database established from a variety of sources in Minnesota. Analyses showed nonunique modulus and strength relationships for most aggregate base and especially subbase materials. Laboratory resilient modulus and shear strength results were analyzed for critical gradation parameters by common gradation characterization methods. The most significant correlations were between a gravel-to-sand ratio (proposed based on ASTM D2487-11) and aggregate shear strength properties. Aggregate compaction (AASHTO T99) and resilient modulus characteristics could also be linked to the gravel-to-sand ratio and verified with other databases in the literature. The gravel-to-sand ratio can be used to optimize aggregate gradations for improved base-subbase performances primarily influenced by shear strength.


Schaefer V.R.,488 Town Engineering Building | Kevern J.T.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | Izevbekhai B.,Office of Materials and Road Research | Wang K.,492 Town Engineering Building | And 2 more authors.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2010

Portland cement pervious concrete (PCPC) has shown great potential to reduce roadway noise, improve splash and spray, and improve friction as a surface wearing course. A study is under way at Iowa State University and the National Concrete Pavement Technology Center to develop mix designs and procedures for PCPC overlays for highway applications. A report is produced on the construction and performance of a PCPC overlay constructed at the Minnesota Road Research Project low-volume roadway test facility to determine the effectiveness of pervious concrete as an overlay. Issues related to construction of the overlay are described, as are results of field tests to characterize the condition of the pavement 7 months following construction, to determine flow characteristics of the overlay, and to characterize the tire-pavement noise of the overlay. Results of these studies show that effective PCPC overlays can be designed for wearing course applications.


Xiao Y.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Tutumluer E.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Siekmeier J.,Office of Materials and Road Research
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2011

Since high-quality aggregate materials are becoming increasingly scarce and expensive, optimizing the use of locally available materials for aggregate bases and granular subbases on the basis of cost and mechanistic properties linked to pavement performance has become an economically viable alternative. This study investigated the effect of quality of unbound aggregate material on conventional flexible pavement performance in Minnesota through a mechanistic-empirical pavement design approach. A comprehensive matrix of conventional flexible pavement layer thicknesses and mechanistic design moduli was carefully designed to conduct mechanistic analyses for the Minnesota Department of Transportation flexible pavement design program (MnPAVE) with the MnPAVE program for pavement sections in two climatic regions in Minnesota. The type and the quality classes of unbound aggregate materials, identified as high, medium, and low, were characterized with stress-dependent resilient modulus (M R) models from a statewide laboratory-tested aggregate M R database. Despite conventional wisdom to the contrary, in some cases the granular subbase material had much higher moduli than the aggregate base. The typical high, medium, and low modulus values for the aggregate base and granular subbase layers, determined from the modulus distributions predicted by the nonlinear finite element program GT-PAVE, were subsequently input during MnPAVE analyses to calculate fatigue and rutting life expectancies for the comprehensive matrix of pavement structures studied. From the results, use of locally available and somewhat marginal materials may be quite cost-effective for low-volume roads, provided that the 20-year design traffic level does not exceed 1.5 million equivalent single-axle loads. A high-quality, stiff subbase was also found to exhibit a bridging effect that better protected the subgrade and offset the detrimental effects of low base stiffness on rutting performance.


Vennapusa P.K.R.,Iowa State University | White D.J.,Iowa State University | Siekmeier J.,Office of Materials and Road Research | Embacher R.A.,Office of Materials and Road Research
International Journal of Pavement Engineering | Year: 2012

This paper presents experimental test results comparing in situ point test measurements using falling weight deflectometer (FWD), light weight deflectometer (LWD), dynamic cone penetrometer and static piezocone, and near continuous roller-integrated continuous compaction control measurements on a granular pavement foundation embankment. Piezoelectric earth pressure cells buried in the pavement foundation layers were used to compare vertical and horizontal stresses during vibratory roller compaction, and LWD and FWD impulse loading. The resulting total stress paths are compared with standard laboratory resilient modulus stress paths. Insights into differences in measurement influence depths and comparison of vertical stress profiles for the different measurements are discussed and relationships between the various measurements in terms of elastic modulus are presented. Some practical considerations for interpreting the relationships and implementation are discussed. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Han B.,University of North Texas | Han B.,Dalian University of Technology | Zhang K.,University of North Texas | Zhang K.,Dalian Jiaotong University | And 3 more authors.
Smart Materials and Structures | Year: 2013

In this paper, a self-sensing carbon nanotube (CNT) concrete pavement system for traffic detection is proposed and tested in a roadway. Pre-cast and cast-in-place self-sensing CNT concrete sensors were simultaneously integrated into a controlled pavement test section at the Minnesota Road Research Facility (MnROAD), USA. Road tests of the system were conducted by using an MnROAD five-axle semi-trailer tractor truck and a van, respectively, both in the winter and summer. Test results show that the proposed self-sensing pavement system can accurately detect the passing of different vehicles under different vehicular speeds and test environments. These findings indicate that the developed self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system can achieve real-time vehicle flow detection with a high detection rate and a low false-alarm rate. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Hoegh K.,University of Minnesota | Khazanovich L.,University of Minnesota | Jense M.,Office of Materials and Road Research
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2010

The AASHTO interim Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) was recently introduced in the United States. Many state agencies have conducted validation and local calibration of the MEPDG performance prediction models. In this study, time history rutting performance data for pavement sections at the Minnesota Department of Transportation full-scale pavement research facility [Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD)] have been used for an evaluation and local calibration of the MEPDG rutting model. A detailed comparison of the predicted total rutting, asphalt layer rutting, and measured rutting is presented. The reason that a conventional MEPDG model calibration was not feasible is discussed. Also, a modification of the rutting model is recommended. It was found that the locally calibrated model greatly improved the MEPDG rutting prediction for various pavement designs in MnROAD conditions.


Dasenbrock D.D.,Office of Materials and Road Research | Abdoun T.,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute | Bennett V.,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2011

As the impacts of failing geotechnical infrastructure become more apparent, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is now more commonly being applied to geotechnical assets: levees, earth dams, landslides, and foundation soils. In particular, real-time monitoring programs are now becoming considered essential for monitoring the performance, or identifying impending failure, of high-risk geosystems. This paper presents several case studies of real-time monitoring of embankments and slopes on Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) projects using MEMS-based in-place inclinometer, ShapeAccelArray (SAA), systems. Background on the SAA inclinometer-accelerometer array system is presented as well as observed project and performance benefits with respect to other displacement monitoring systems. Benefits of real-time monitoring and the larger concept of performance monitoring and SHM of geotechnical assets by remote sensing are discussed. © 2011 ASCE.


Lukanen E.,Office of Materials and Road Research
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2011

The Minnesota Department of Transportation (DOT) adopted the use of performance-graded (PG) asphalt binders in 1997. In 1999 the Minnesota DOT required PG XX-34 binders for all new (not overlay) bituminous construction with the objective of reducing the amount of transverse cracking. Pavement management data were used to track the development of transverse cracking on PG XX-34 projects. The transverse cracking rate of the PG XX-34 projects was then compared with the cracking rates for similar projects from the pre-PG era. The comparison found that after 7 years of service, transverse cracks on the PG projects were developing at approximately 1/10th the rate experienced before performance grading was implemented.


Dave E.V.,University of Minnesota | Hanson C.,University of Minnesota | Helmer B.,University of Minnesota | Johanneck L.,Office of Materials and Road Research
Asphalt Pavements - Proceedings of the International Conference on Asphalt Pavements, ISAP 2014 | Year: 2014

Cracking is a major distress mechanism in asphalt pavements. Thermal cracking is especially prevalent in Northern Minnesota and other areas with cold climates. Developing asphalt mix designs that are more resistant to cracking distresses is necessary to reduce maintenance and rehabilitation expenditures. The present study involves analysis of over 32,000 asphalt mixes and approximately 12,000 field sections available from Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT). The main objective of this work is to identify the effects of asphalt binder content and binder grade on the actual field cracking performance. A comprehensive database has been developed that includes mix design information (design traffic level, mix size, binder type, wear versus non-wear course), mix volumetrics and gradation (air voids, voids in mineral aggregates, voids filled with asphalt, adjusted asphalt film thickness, percent passing on control sieves, recycled fractions), and actual field performance data from MnDOT's pavement management system. This database has made it possible to quantify the effects of binder content and grade on the actual field performance. A series of statistical tests were conducted to determine if significant relationships exist between the binder content and grade, and the field cracking performance. The results show that both binder content and grade have a significant effect on the transverse cracking of pavements and for Minnesota the PG XX-34 grade may be better suited than the PG XX-28 binder grade. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


Lalague A.,Sintef | Lebens M.A.,Office of Materials and Road Research | Hoff I.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Grov E.,Sintef
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering | Year: 2016

Experiments were conducted using Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR). The performance of six GPR systems was assessed in terms of: (1) remotely mapping cavities behind concrete linings, (2) detecting rockfall from the tunnel roof onto an inner lining comprising, for example, precast concrete segments. Studies conducted in Norway and the United States demonstrate that the GPR technique is a simple and reliable method that can assist stability inspection in existing Norwegian tunnels. The ground-coupled GPR systems represent a step forward in the remote detection of rockfall on tunnel concrete linings, and are particularly suited to self-standing inner linings. The analysis of the data is relatively straightforward and reasonably accurate. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Wien

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