Office of Environment and Heritage

Alstonville, Australia

Office of Environment and Heritage

Alstonville, Australia

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Saintilan N.,Office of Environment and Heritage | Wilson N.C.,Forest Science Institute of Vietnam | Rogers K.,University of Wollongong | Rajkaran A.,Rhodes University | Krauss K.W.,U.S. Geological Survey
Global Change Biology | Year: 2014

Mangroves are species of halophytic intertidal trees and shrubs derived from tropical genera and are likely delimited in latitudinal range by varying sensitivity to cold. There is now sufficient evidence that mangrove species have proliferated at or near their poleward limits on at least five continents over the past half century, at the expense of salt marsh. Avicennia is the most cold-tolerant genus worldwide, and is the subject of most of the observed changes. Avicennia germinans has extended in range along the USA Atlantic coast and expanded into salt marsh as a consequence of lower frost frequency and intensity in the southern USA. The genus has also expanded into salt marsh at its southern limit in Peru, and on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Mangroves of several species have expanded in extent and replaced salt marsh where protected within mangrove reserves in Guangdong Province, China. In south-eastern Australia, the expansion of Avicennia marina into salt marshes is now well documented, and Rhizophora stylosa has extended its range southward, while showing strong population growth within estuaries along its southern limits in northern New South Wales. Avicennia marina has extended its range southwards in South Africa. The changes are consistent with the poleward extension of temperature thresholds coincident with sea-level rise, although the specific mechanism of range extension might be complicated by limitations on dispersal or other factors. The shift from salt marsh to mangrove dominance on subtropical and temperate shorelines has important implications for ecological structure, function, and global change adaptation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Saintilan N.,Office of Environment and Heritage | Rogers K.,University of Wollongong
Marine and Freshwater Research | Year: 2013

We review the distribution, status and ecology of Australian saltmarshes and the mechanisms whereby enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide and associated climate change have influenced and will influence the provision of ecosystem goods and services. Research in temperate and subtropical saltmarsh has demonstrated important trophic contributions to estuarine fisheries, mediated by the synchronised mass-spawning of crabs, which feed predominantly on the C4 saltmarsh grass Sporobolus virginicus and microphytobenthos. Saltmarshes also provide unique feeding and habitat opportunities for several species of threatened microbats and birds, including migratory shorebirds. Saltmarshes increased in extent relative to mangrove in Australia in both tide- and wave-dominated geomorphic settings through the latter Holocene, although historic trends have seen a reversal of this trend. Australian saltmarshes have some capacity to maintain elevation with respect to rising sea level, although in south-eastern Australia, the encroachment of mangrove and, in Tasmania, conversion of shrubland to herbfield in the past half-century are consistent with changes in relative sea level. Modelling of the impacts of projected sea-level rise, incorporating sedimentation and other surface-elevation drivers, suggests that the survival of saltmarsh in developed estuaries will depend on the flexible management of hard structures and other impediments to wetland retreat. © 2013 CSIRO.


Davy M.C.,Murray Catchment Management Authority | Koen T.B.,Office of Environment and Heritage
Soil Research | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to investigate variations in soil organic carbon (SOC) for two soil types and six common land uses in the New South Wales Murray Catchment and to explore the factors influencing those variations. Samples were collected from 100 sites on duplex soils (Ustalfs) of the Slopes region, and 100 sites on red-brown earths (Xeralfs) of the Plains region. Stocks of SOC (0-30cm) across the study area ranged between 22.3 and 86.0tha-1, with means (± s.e.) of 42.0±1.3 and 37.9±0.8tha -1 for the Slopes and Plains regions, respectively. Higher SOC stocks were present in pasture-dominated land uses compared with mixed cropping in the Slopes region, with particularly high stocks found in pastures at positions on a slope of 7-10%. No significant differences in SOC stocks were identified between land-use groups (pastures or cropping) in the Plains region (<500-mm rainfall zone). Significant correlations were found between SOC and a range of climatic, topographical, and soil physico-chemical variables at both the catchment and sub-regional scale. Soil physico-chemical and topographical factors play an important role in explaining SOC variation and should be incorporated into models that aim to predict SOC sequestration across agricultural landscapes. © CSIRO 2013.


Krauss K.W.,U.S. Geological Survey | Mckee K.L.,U.S. Geological Survey | Lovelock C.E.,University of Queensland | Cahoon D.R.,U.S. Geological Survey | And 3 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2014

Mangroves are among the most well described and widely studied wetland communities in the world. The greatest threats to mangrove persistence are deforestation and other anthropogenic disturbances that can compromise habitat stability and resilience to sea-level rise. To persist, mangrove ecosystems must adjust to rising sea level by building vertically or become submerged. Mangroves may directly or indirectly influence soil accretion processes through the production and accumulation of organic matter, as well as the trapping and retention of mineral sediment. In this review, we provide a general overview of research on mangrove elevation dynamics, emphasizing the role of the vegetation in maintaining soil surface elevations (i.e. position of the soil surface in the vertical plane). We summarize the primary ways in which mangroves may influence sediment accretion and vertical land development, for example, through root contributions to soil volume and upward expansion of the soil surface. We also examine how hydrological, geomorphological and climatic processes may interact with plant processes to influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with rising sea level. We draw on a variety of studies to describe the important, and often under-appreciated, role that plants play in shaping the trajectory of an ecosystem undergoing change. © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.


News Article | December 1, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA--(Marketwired - December 01, 2016) - Enphase Energy, Inc. ( : ENPH), a global energy technology company, announced today that its installation partner, Solaray Energy, has completed the installation of a rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) system with the largest Enphase Storage System commissioned to date. The project was partly funded by an Environmental Performance Innovation Grant from the City of Sydney in collaboration with the NSW Government's Office of Environment and Heritage. The solar PV system was installed in a multi-unit residential building operated by the student housing co-operative, Stucco, making it one of the first multi-dwelling apartment buildings in the world to combine solar, storage and software-based energy management. Based in Newtown, Sydney, the installation includes 30 kilowatts of solar modules, 114 Enphase S230 Microinverters and 36 Enphase AC Batteries, for a total of 43.2 kilowatts of storage capacity. An energy assessment conducted by Stucco estimates that the solar and storage system should provide up to 80 percent of the building's energy requirements for its 40 residents. Stucco residents will benefit from individual metering capabilities set for each unit, receiving power bills for their consumption based on a Power Purchase Agreement model where electricity is resold to them by Stucco. Nathan Dunn, managing director of Enphase Asia-Pacific said, "We are delighted to be working with Solaray and Stucco on what we consider to be a landmark project. In addition to being the largest Enphase Storage System commissioned since the Enphase AC Battery was launched in Australia in August 2016, this project illustrates how solar and storage can co-exist in multi-unit residential buildings." The Stucco installation was overseen by Dr. Bjorn Sturmberg and Louis Janse van Rensburg, project managers and former Stucco residents. Dr Sturmberg said, "From the beginning, we set our hearts on breaking down the barriers that prevented Stucco's residents from realising the benefits of solar and storage technology. By using Enphase's latest energy technology, this project unlocks the potential of solar and storage and opens a whole new market segment for renewable energy. It also demonstrates that solar energy can be an affordable alternative to grid power, which is subject to unpredictable pricing controlled by utilities and network operators." "Stucco selected Enphase Energy because it is the only company that offers an integrated energy management solution, including solar generation and storage, along with energy management through its Enphase Enlighten app," said Janse van Rensburg. "We were also impressed by the warranty period that Enphase offered for its AC Batteries, as storage is a core component of our system's design." Jonathan Fisk, director of Solaray Energy said, "Stucco's vision of greater energy independence is necessary to challenge long-held views in Australia that solar and storage is only suitable for individual dwellings. We are delighted the company has partnered with us for this project. Stucco is a heritage listed building, and getting the consent we needed to install solar and storage enables further conversation aimed at delivering greater energy independence into many accommodation styles." The Enphase AC Battery is a key component of the Enphase Home Energy Solution, which delivers the lowest up-front cost and highest lifetime value available in today's market. The Enphase AC Battery is an integrated energy storage system that is safe, built for maximum performance and reliable. Its modular architecture and ability to be right-sized makes it cost-effective, with the flexibility to meet a home's current and future energy demands. Note to Editor: Hi-res images of the installation can be downloaded here. Enphase Energy, a global energy technology company, delivers smart, easy-to-use solutions that connect solar generation, storage and management on one intelligent platform. The company revolutionised solar with its microinverter technology and produces the world's only truly integrated solar plus storage solution. Enphase has shipped approximately 13 million microinverters, and more than 540,000 Enphase residential and commercial systems have been deployed in more than 100 countries. Visit www.enphase.com/au for more information and follow the company on Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter. Enphase Energy®, the Enphase logo and other trademarks or service names are the trademarks of Enphase Energy, Inc. Solaray Energy is the industry leader in providing innovative solar and storage products and solutions in Australia. With a strong focus on the software and technology products that manage solar and storage, Solaray is uniquely positioned to ensure renewable energy systems deliver maximum returns to their owners and operators. Solaray has been operating and providing solar and storage solutions for 10 years and has been a leader in the use of technology to manage the effectiveness of solar PV Systems. Every solar system installed by Solaray in the last 2-3 years is cloud connected and managed online. For further information, visit www.solaray.com.au or follow on Facebook. This press release may contain forward-looking statements, including statements related to Enphase Energy's financial performance, release dates for new products, market demands for its products, and advantages of its technology and market trends. These forward-looking statements are based on the company's current expectations and inherently involve significant risks and uncertainties. Actual results and the timing of events could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements as a result of these risks and uncertainties and other risks detailed in the "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in Enphase Energy's latest Securities and Exchange Commission filings and reports. Enphase Energy undertakes no duty or obligation to update any forward-looking statements contained in this release as a result of new information, future events or changes in its expectations.


News Article | December 2, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA--(Marketwired - Dec 2, 2016) -   Enphase Energy, Inc. (NASDAQ: ENPH), a global energy technology company, announced today that its installation partner, Solaray Energy, has completed the installation of a rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) system with the largest Enphase Storage System commissioned to date. The project was partly funded by an Environmental Performance Innovation Grant from the City of Sydney in collaboration with the NSW Government's Office of Environment and Heritage. The solar PV system was installed in a multi-unit residential building operated by the student housing co-operative, Stucco, making it one of the first multi-dwelling apartment buildings in the world to combine solar, storage and software-based energy management. Based in Newtown, Sydney, the installation includes 30 kilowatts of solar modules, 114 Enphase S230 Microinverters and 36 Enphase AC Batteries, for a total of 43.2 kilowatts of storage capacity. An energy assessment conducted by Stucco estimates that the solar and storage system should provide up to 80 percent of the building's energy requirements for its 40 residents. Stucco residents will benefit from individual metering capabilities set for each unit, receiving power bills for their consumption based on a Power Purchase Agreement model where electricity is resold to them by Stucco. Nathan Dunn, managing director of Enphase Asia-Pacific said, "We are delighted to be working with Solaray and Stucco on what we consider to be a landmark project. In addition to being the largest Enphase Storage System commissioned since the Enphase AC Battery was launched in Australia in August 2016, this project illustrates how solar and storage can co-exist in multi-unit residential buildings." The Stucco installation was overseen by Dr. Bjorn Sturmberg and Louis Janse van Rensburg, project managers and former Stucco residents. Dr Sturmberg said, "From the beginning, we set our hearts on breaking down the barriers that prevented Stucco's residents from realising the benefits of solar and storage technology. By using Enphase's latest energy technology, this project unlocks the potential of solar and storage and opens a whole new market segment for renewable energy. It also demonstrates that solar energy can be an affordable alternative to grid power, which is subject to unpredictable pricing controlled by utilities and network operators." "Stucco selected Enphase Energy because it is the only company that offers an integrated energy management solution, including solar generation and storage, along with energy management through its Enphase Enlighten app," said Janse van Rensburg. "We were also impressed by the warranty period that Enphase offered for its AC Batteries, as storage is a core component of our system's design." Jonathan Fisk, director of Solaray Energy said, "Stucco's vision of greater energy independence is necessary to challenge long-held views in Australia that solar and storage is only suitable for individual dwellings. We are delighted the company has partnered with us for this project. Stucco is a heritage listed building, and getting the consent we needed to install solar and storage enables further conversation aimed at delivering greater energy independence into many accommodation styles." The Enphase AC Battery is a key component of the Enphase Home Energy Solution, which delivers the lowest up-front cost and highest lifetime value available in today's market. The Enphase AC Battery is an integrated energy storage system that is safe, built for maximum performance and reliable. Its modular architecture and ability to be right-sized makes it cost-effective, with the flexibility to meet a home's current and future energy demands. Note to Editor: Hi-res images of the installation can be downloaded here. Enphase Energy, a global energy technology company, delivers smart, easy-to-use solutions that connect solar generation, storage and management on one intelligent platform. The company revolutionised solar with its microinverter technology and produces the world's only truly integrated solar plus storage solution. Enphase has shipped approximately 13 million microinverters, and more than 540,000 Enphase residential and commercial systems have been deployed in more than 100 countries. Visit www.enphase.com/au for more information and follow the company on Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter. Enphase Energy®, the Enphase logo and other trademarks or service names are the trademarks of Enphase Energy, Inc. Solaray Energy is the industry leader in providing innovative solar and storage products and solutions in Australia. With a strong focus on the software and technology products that manage solar and storage, Solaray is uniquely positioned to ensure renewable energy systems deliver maximum returns to their owners and operators. Solaray has been operating and providing solar and storage solutions for 10 years and has been a leader in the use of technology to manage the effectiveness of solar PV Systems. Every solar system installed by Solaray in the last 2-3 years is cloud connected and managed online. For further information, visit www.solaray.com.au or follow on Facebook. This press release may contain forward-looking statements, including statements related to Enphase Energy's financial performance, release dates for new products, market demands for its products, and advantages of its technology and market trends. These forward-looking statements are based on the company's current expectations and inherently involve significant risks and uncertainties. Actual results and the timing of events could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements as a result of these risks and uncertainties and other risks detailed in the "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in Enphase Energy's latest Securities and Exchange Commission filings and reports. Enphase Energy undertakes no duty or obligation to update any forward-looking statements contained in this release as a result of new information, future events or changes in its expectations.


Kalkman V.J.,Naturalis Biodiversity Center | Theischinger G.,Office of Environment and Heritage
International Journal of Odonatology | Year: 2013

The subfamily Argiolestinae is raised to family level to include all zygopteran genera in which the gills of the larvae are flat and held in a horizontal plane. Adiagnosis of the family is given and characters for both adults and larvae are presented. The family is divided into two subfamilies based on characters in the genital ligula, with the subfamily Argiolestinae found in Australasia east of Huxley's Line and the subfamily Podolestinae found in Africa and Asia west of Huxley's Line. Four genera are newly described: Eoargiolestes (New Caledonia, type species Sympecma ochracea Montrouzier, 1864), Luzonargiolestes (Philippines, type species Argiolestes realensis Gapud & Recuenco, 1993), Solomonargiolestes (Bougainville, Papua New Guinea and Malaita, Solomon Islands, type species Argiolestes bougainville Kalkman, 2008) and Pyrrhargiolestes (Papua New Guinea, type species Argiolestes sidonia Martin, 1909). In addition Metagrion (type species Argiolestes postnodalis Selys, 1878) and Wahnesia (type species Argiolestes kirbyi Förster, 1900), two genera not in use for over 70 years, are reinstated. Based on molecular data the African genera Neurolestes and Nesolestes have been shown to be good genera and are here treated as such, Nesolestes nigeriensis is transferred to Neurolestes. All 20 genera included in Argiolestidae are discussed, with type species, key characters of adults, distribution and habitat being given. In addition a diagnosis is presented for each genus and information is given on their identification together with a map of the distribution of the genus and scanning electron microscope images of the genital ligula of most genera. A keyto the genera of the Australasian region is presented and keys to the species of Caledargiolestes, Caledopteryx and Podopteryx are given. New distributional records of Caledargiolestes, Caledopteryx, Luzonargiolestes, Solomonargiolestes and Podopteryx are provided. © 2013 Worldwide Dragonfly Association.


Evans J.P.,University of New South Wales | Ekstrom M.,CSIRO | Ji F.,Office of Environment and Heritage
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2012

When using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modelling system it is necessary to choose between many parametrisations for each physics option. This study examines the performance of various physics scheme combinations on the simulation of a series of rainfall events near the south-east coast of Australia known as East Coast Lows. A thirty-six member multi-physics ensemble was created such that each member had a unique set of physics parametrisations. No single ensemble member was found to perform best for all events, variables and metrics. This is reflected in the fact that different climate variables are found to be sensitive to different physical parametrisations. While a standardised super-metric can be used to identify best performers, a step-wise decision approach described here, allows explicit recognition of the "robustness" of choosing one parameterisation over another, allowing the identification of a group of "equally robustly" performing physics combinations. These results suggest that the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic planetary boundary layer scheme and the Betts-Miller-Janjic cumulus scheme can be chosen with some robustness. Possibly with greater confidence, the results also suggest that the Yonsei University planetary boundary layer scheme, Kain-Fritsch cumulus scheme and RRTMG radiation scheme should not be used in combination in this region. Results further indicate that the selection of physics scheme options has larger impact on model performance during the more intensive rainfall events. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Stenson M.P.,CSIRO | Littleboy M.,Office of Environment and Heritage | Gilfedder M.,CSIRO
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2011

Water and salt export to rivers is of particular importance in large catchments, such as Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, where there are multiple users of the water resource. Comparing estimates of water and salt generated from upland catchments across large areas is difficult due to the lack of a comparable, consistent approach. River routing models are currently used to model water and salt movement along regulated reaches. However methods are still required to predict the individual contributions of water and salt from unregulated upland catchments to feed into these river routing models. The 2CSalt model has been developed to predict monthly water and salt export from these upland catchments. 2CSalt makes use of existing regional data sets such as topography (digital elevation models) and hydrogeology/salinity (Groundwater Flow Systems). 2CSalt was developed using the " TIME" modelling framework which allowed for a rapid development cycle through the reuse of existing and tested components. The results from current applications of the model show a strong match with measured data. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Context Prescribed burning is routinely performed within the Sydney Basin as a method of fire-hazard mitigation. Despite the widespread use of prescribed fire, knowledge of the impact of prescribed fire on most fauna species remains unclear. This is particularly the case for bandicoot species. Aims To determine the impact of a low-intensity prescribed fire on the survival of the long-nosed bandicoot, Perameles nasuta, and the southern brown bandicoot, Isoodon obesulus obesulus (hereafter abbreviated to I. obesulus), immediately after the fire and at 5 weeks, 5 months and 13 months following the fire. To document the spatial ecology and nesting requirements of I. obesulus and P. nasuta before and after fire. Methods One I. obesulus and seven P. nasuta (five female and two male) individuals were radio-tracked. Animals were tracked before, during and following a hazard-reduction burn to assess the impact of fire on home range, survival and nesting behaviour. Key results Post-fire survival of P. nasuta and I. obesulus was high and the population remained stable up to 5 months following the fire. All animals tracked within the burn area (three female P. nasuta) survived the passage of fire. The home range for one male I. obesulus was found to be 2.35ha 50% kernel-density estimate (KDE) and 12.35ha 95% KDE. Female P. nasuta (n ≤ 5) had a home range of 1.3ha0.2s.e. 50% KDE and 7.5ha1.7s.e. 95% KDE. Male P. nasuta (n ≤ 1) had a home range of 1.1ha 50% KDE and 6.5ha 95% KDE. Nesting for both species tended to occur in dense vegetation, with a slight shift to non-combustible refuge sites post-fire. Animals tended to maintain exclusive and relatively stable core home ranges, although overlap of non-core home ranges was common. Conclusions The survival of bandicoots following a low-intensity hazard-reduction fire was high in the short term; however, further research is required to determine how the components of a fire regime affect native species, in particular peramelids. Implications Hazard-reduction fires should be used with caution to manage the isolated and endangered northern Sydney population of I. obesulus, so as to ensure the persistence of this species. © CSIRO 2012.

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