Pilishvili T.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Zell E.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Farley M.M.,Emory University |
Schaffner W.,Vanderbilt University |
And 8 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2010
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children who were aged 3 to 59 months in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). METHODS: IPD cases were identified through routine surveillance during 2001-2004. We matched a median of 3 control subjects to each case patient by age and zip code. We calculated odds ratios for potential risk factors for vaccine-type and non-vaccine-type IPD by using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: We enrolled 782 case patients (45% vaccine-type IPD) and 2512 matched control subjects. Among children who received any PCV7, children were at increased risk for vaccine-type IPD when they had underlying illnesses, were male, or had no health care coverage. Vaccination with PCV7 did not influence the risk for non-vaccine-type IPD. Presence of underlying illnesses increased the risk for non-vaccine-type IPD, particularly among children who were not exposed to household smoking. Non-vaccine-type case patients were more likely than control subjects to attend group child care, be male, live in low-income households, or have asthma; case patients were less likely than control subjects to live in households with other children. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with PCV7 has reduced the risk for vaccine-type IPD that is associated with race and group child care attendance. Because these factors are still associated with non-vaccine-type IPD risk, additional reductions in disparities should be expected with new, higher valency conjugate vaccines. Copyright © 2010 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Oh J.Y.,Office of Disease Prevention and Epidemiology |
Oh J.Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Laidler M.,Office of Disease Prevention and Epidemiology |
Fiala S.C.,Office of Disease Prevention and Epidemiology |
And 2 more authors.
Sports Health | Year: 2012
Background: Acute exertional rhabdomyolysis has been infrequently reported among adolescents. In August 2010, several high school football players from one team developed rhabdomyolysis and triceps compartment syndrome following an upper arm exercise held in a non-air-conditioned wrestling room.Purpose: To confirm the diagnoses, characterize the spectrum of illnesses, and determine the factors contributing to rhabdomyolysis and triceps compartment syndromes.Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.Methods: The authors reviewed hospital medical records and interviewed players, coaches, school administrators, and hospital staff, using a standardized questionnaire that assessed symptoms, exposures, and activities.Results: Among 43 players, 22 (51%) experienced rhabdomyolysis (peak creatine kinase range, 2434-42 000 U/L): 22 patients had upper arm myalgia; 12 were hospitalized; 3 experienced triceps compartment syndrome; none experienced renal failure. Illnesses started 1 to 3 days after the triceps exercise. Forty players (93%) completed questionnaires. Among 19 players receiving at least 1 vote from a teammate as 1 of the 3 hardest working players, 13 (68%) experienced rhabdomyolysis versus 7 (33%) of 21 not considered hardest working (relative risk, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-4.0). Of 40 players, 10 (25%) reported creatine supplement use, which was not associated with rhabdomyolysis. No player acknowledged use of alcohol, illicit drugs, or performance-enhancing drugs; results of performance-enhancing drug tests on the 4 players tested were negative. Environmental investigation did not identify additional factors contributing to illness.Conclusions: The upper arm exercise, possibly exacerbated by heat, led to rhabdomyolysis and compartment syndrome. Greater awareness of specific exercise hazards and prevention strategies can minimize risk for clinically significant muscle injury. © 2012 American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine.
Grenard J.L.,Claremont Graduate University |
Dent C.W.,Office of Disease Prevention and Epidemiology |
Stacy A.W.,Claremont Graduate University
Pediatrics | Year: 2013
OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents' jobs, and parents' education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcoholrelated problems in 10th grade. Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Liko J.,Oregon Immunization Program |
Robison S.G.,Oregon Immunization Program |
Cieslak P.R.,Office of Disease Prevention and Epidemiology
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014
A 2012 pertussis epidemic in Oregon afforded an opportunity to measure vaccine effectiveness; it ranged from 95% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92%-97%) among children 15-47 months of age to 47% (95% CI, 19%-65%) among adolescents 13-16 years of age. In all age groups, pertussis incidence was higher among unimmunized persons. © 2014 The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Office of Disease Prevention and Epidemiology and Oregon Immunization Program.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America | Year: 2014
A 2012 pertussis epidemic in Oregon afforded an opportunity to measure vaccine effectiveness; it ranged from 95% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92%-97%) among children 15-47 months of age to 47% (95% CI, 19%-65%) among adolescents 13-16 years of age. In all age groups, pertussis incidence was higher among unimmunized persons.