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Watts R.B.,Office of Disaster Management | Ribes J.C.,Major University | Sparks R.S.J.,University of Bristol
Andean Geology | Year: 2014

Guallatiri Volcano (18°25’S, 69°05’W) is a large edifice located on the Chilean Altiplano near the Bolivia/ Chile border. This Pleistocene-Holocene construct, situated at the southern end of the Nevados de Quimsachata chain, is an andesitic/dacitic complex formed of early stage lava flows and later stage coulées and lava domes. Domo Tinto (5±3 ka, recent 40Ar/39Ar date) is a small dome located on the southern flanks of Guallatiri Volcano. It is composed of monotonous, crystal-rich andesite (~62% SiO2) with predominant plagioclase, amphibole, biotite and rare clinopyroxene within a glassy groundmass containing plagioclase and subordinate amphibole microlites. Geochemical data indicate the Tinto lava is compositionally homogeneous. The occurrence of ovoid magmatic inclusions of basaltic andesite (<0.5% volume) and ubiquitous disequilibrium features in the mineral assemblage indicate that the magma chamber was perturbed by repeated intrusions of mafic magma. These events promoted magma-mingling, inclusion disaggregation and convective self-mixing before a critical recharge event triggered eruption and formation of the dome. Glacially eroded sections through Domo Tinto indicate that it was formed by the sequential extrusion of several hummocky lobes with a sub-horizontal base and a convex-upward upper surface. Each lobe exhibits a thin, basal zone of foliated lava and a thick interior of massive lava (up to ~20 m thick) and these lobes have piled atop each other to form an overall pancake morphology. The lack of any associated explosive material and collapse-scar features indicate the formation of Domo Tinto was relatively benign. © 2014, Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria. All rights reserved. Source


Yang Y.-T.,Office of Disaster Management | Hendricks E.A.,U.S. Navy | Kuo H.-C.,National Taiwan University | Peng M.S.,U.S. Navy
Monthly Weather Review | Year: 2014

The authors report on western North Pacific Typhoon Soulik (2013), which had two anomalously long-lived concentric eyewall (CE) episodes, as identified from microwave satellite data, radar data, and total precipitable water data. The first period was 25 h long and occurred while Soulik was at category 4 intensity. The second period was 34 h long and occurred when Soulik was at category 2 intensity. A large moat and outer eyewall width were present in both CE periods, and there was a significant contraction of the inner eyewall radius from the first period to the second period. The typhoon intensity decrease was partially due to encountering unfavorable environmental conditions of low ocean heat content and dry air, even though inner eyewall contraction would generally support intensification. The T-Vmax diagram (where T is the brightness temperature and Vmax is the best track-estimated intensity) is used to analyze the time sequence of the intensity and convective activity. The convective activity (and thus the integrated kinetic energy) increased during the CE periods despite the weakening of intensity. © 2014 American Meteorological Society. Source


Yang Y.-T.,Office of Disaster Management | Kuo H.-C.,National Taiwan University | Hendricks E.A.,U.S. Navy | Liu Y.-C.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Peng M.S.,U.S. Navy
Journal of Climate | Year: 2015

The typhoons with concentric eyewalls (CE) over the western North Pacific in different phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) between 1997 and 2012 are studied. They find a good correlation (0.72) between the annual CE typhoon number and the oceanic Niño index (ONI), with most of the CE typhoons occurring in the warm and neutral episodes. In the warm (neutral) episode, 55% (50%) of the typhoons possessed a CE structure. In contrast, only 25% of the typhoons possessed a CE structure in the cold episode. The CE formation frequency is also significantly different with 0.9 (0.2) CEs per month in the warm (cold) episode. There are more long-lived CE cases (CE structure maintained more than 20 h) and typhoons with multiple CE formations in the warm episodes. There are no typhoons with multiple CE formations in the cold episode. The warm episode CE typhoons generally have a larger size, stronger intensity, and smaller variation in convective activity and intensity. This may be due to the fact that the CE formation location is farther east in the warm episodes. Shifts in CE typhoon location with favorable conditions thus produce long-lived CE typhoons and multiple CE formations. The multiple CE formations may lead to expansion of the typhoon size. © 2015 American Meteorological Society. Source

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