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Taipei, Taiwan

Wu M.-F.,National Taiwan University | Hsu Y.-M.,National Taiwan University | Tang M.-C.,National Taiwan University | Chen H.-C.,National Taiwan University | And 7 more authors.
In Vivo | Year: 2011

Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM) is enriched with polysaccharides, lipids, vitamins, fibers and minerals. Many studies have shown that ABM possesses immune-enhancing and anti-tumor effects. However, little is known about its protective effects on liver function. We employed carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4) to induce hepatic fibrosis in a rat model to examine the protective effects of ABM on the liver in this study. The experiments included non-treatment control, CCl4-only control, and treatment with 200 mg and 2,000 mg of ABM extracts (per kilogram rat weight). All groups other than the non-treatment control were treated with intraperitoneal injections of CCl4 twice a week. Experimental and control rats were tube-fed with experimental ABM extracts or double-distilled water, respectively, on the remaining four days each week. The whole experimental protocol lasted 8 weeks; blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical and tissue histochemical analysis. Plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and the activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the liver were measured. We found that high-dose ABM treatment reduced hepatic necrosis and fibrosis caused by CCl4 in comparison with the CCl4 control group. ALT and AST activities in the sera collected from ABM-treated rats were lower than those in the CCl 4 control rats. These results suggested that ABM extract was capable of either enhancing liver recovering from CCl4 damage or attenuating CCl4 toxicity. Results of anti-oxidative enzyme activity analysis showed no apparent differences among ABM-treated groups and CCl4 control groups, indicating that removal of free radicals does not explain the protective/recovery effects observed in this study. Source

Wu M.-F.,National Taiwan University | Lu H.-F.,Cheng Hsin General Hospital | Lu H.-F.,Fu Jen Catholic University | Hsu Y.-M.,National Taiwan University | And 10 more authors.
In Vivo | Year: 2011

Agaricus blazei Murill extract (ABM) has been reported to possess antitumor effects. In this study, the role of ABM in tumor growth and metastasis in vivo was evaluated in experimental Smmu 7721 hepatoma cells in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice and B16F10 melanoma cells lung metastasis in C57BL/6 mice. For the tumor growth model, the size of the liver tumor mass was about 10 mm to 20 mm in the control group. In comparison with the control group, the tumor mass seem to grow slowly with ABM treatment, especially at the high dose. For the tumor metastasis model, after a six-week treatment, the survival rates of B6 mice were 0%, 30%, 10% and 50% for control group, low, median and high concentration ABM treatment groups, respectively. The survival rate showed that pretreatment of C57BL/6 (B6) mice with ABM lengthened their lifespan after tumor cell inoculation, which supports the notion that ABM successfully reduced lung metastasis formation by B16F10 melanoma cells. The treatment effect was dependent on the concentration of ABM for tumor growth and metastasis in these models. Source

Krieger J.W.,Seattle and King County | Chan N.L.,University of Washington | Saelens B.E.,Policy Development and Evaluation Unit | Ta M.L.,Policy Development and Evaluation Unit | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: The federal menu labeling law will require chain restaurants to post caloric information on menus, but the impact of labeling is uncertain. Purpose: The goal of the current study was to examine the effect of menu labeling on calories purchased, and secondarily, to assess self-reported awareness and use of labels. Design: Single-community pre-post-post cross-sectional study. Data were collected in 2008-2010 and analyzed in 2011-2012. Setting/participants: 50 sites from 10 chain restaurants in King County, Washington, selected through stratified, two-stage cluster random sampling. A total of 7325 customers participated. Eligibility criteria were: being an English speaker, aged ≥14 years, and having an itemized receipt. The study population was 59% male, 76% white non-Hispanic, and 53% aged<40 years. Intervention: A regulation requiring chain restaurants to post calorie information on menus or menu boards was implemented. Main outcome measures: Mean number of calories purchased. Results: No significant changes occurred between baseline and 4-6 months postregulation. Mean calories per purchase decreased from 908.5 to 870.4 at 18 months post-implementation (38 kcal, 95% CI=-76.9, 0.8, p=0.06) in food chains and from 154.3 to 132.1 (22 kcal, 95% CI=-35.8, -8.5, p=0.002) in coffee chains. Calories decreased in taco and coffee chains, but not in burger and sandwich establishments. They decreased more among women than men in coffee chains. Awareness of labels increased from 18.8% to 61.7% in food chains and from 4.4% to 30.0% in coffee chains (both p<0.001). Among customers seeing calorie information, the proportion using it (about one third) did not change substantially over time. After implementation, food chain customers using information purchased on average fewer calories compared to those seeing but not using (difference=143.2 kcal, p<0.001) and those not seeing (difference=135.5 kcal, p<0.001) such information. Conclusions: Mean calories per purchase decreased 18 months after implementation of menu labeling in some restaurant chains and among women but not men. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Source

Yin Y.,Beijing Normal University | Zhang W.,Beijing Normal University | Hu Z.,Office of Director | Jia F.,Guangdong Mental Health Center | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

In China, caregivers for family members with schizophrenia play an important role in treatment and recovery but may experience stigma and discrimination simply because of their family relationship. The object of this study was to measure the degrees and correlates of stigma and discrimination experiences among this group. Four hundred twenty-seven caregivers participated in this hospital-based and cross-sectional study in Ningbo and Guangzhou, China. Data were collected by trained interviewers using fixed questionnaires. Stigma and discrimination experiences were measured by the Modified Consumer Experiences of Stigma Questionnaire (MCESQ). Caregivers' social support was measured by the Social Support Rating Scale. Parametric analysis, nonparametric analysis and multivariate linear regression were used. The mean (SD) score of MCESQ was 2.44(0.45), 2.91(0.71) for stigma experiences and 1.97(0.37) for discrimination experiences on a fivepoint score ("1 = never" and "5 = very often"). Approximately 65% of caregivers reported that they tried to conceal their family members' illness, and 71% lacked the support of friends. The experience of stigma was significantly negatively associated with the perceived social support of caregivers (standard β= -0.2,p<0.001). Caregivers who were children of the patients experienced fewer stigmas than other (standard β= -0.18, p<0.001). Urban residence (standard b = 20.12, p<0.01) and patients did not complete primary school education (standard β= -0.13, p<0.01) were negatively related with stigmas. In addition, stigma and discrimination was more experienced in Zhejiang than in Guangdong (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study performed that caregivers of people with schizophrenia in China experienced general stigmas and rare discrimination and found the relations with social support, kinship, patient's educational level and regional differences. More interventions and supports should been given to caregivers who are lack of social support, who live in rural area and who are the patients' parents, spouses or siblings. © 2014 Yin et al. Source

Wu M.-F.,National Taiwan University | Peng F.-C.,National Taiwan University | Chen Y.-L.,Yuanpei University | Lee C.-S.,Fu Jen Catholic University | And 10 more authors.
In Vivo | Year: 2011

Antrodia cinnamomea is an expensive and highly valued folk medicinal fungus that grows only inside the rotten trunk of Cinnamomum kanehirae, an evergreen broadleaved tree. This fungus has recently been used commercially in the formulation of nutraceuticals and functional foods in Taiwan. It has been used for centuries as a detoxificant in cases of food poisoning, diarrhea, vomiting, hepatic disease and various kinds of cancers. The present study investigated the effects of Antrodia cinnamomea on mutagenicity using a bacterial reverse mutation assay employing the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA1535. The effects of Antrodia cinnamomea on chromosome structure were tested in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Antrodia cinnamomea was not mutagenic in all bacterial strains and it was not genotoxic in CHO cells. Source

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