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Rosenberg A.S.,Therapeutic Proteins | Cherney B.,Therapeutic Proteins | Brorson K.,CDER | Clouse K.,CDER | And 3 more authors.
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Viral contamination of biotech product facilities is a potentially devastating manufacturing risk and, unfortunately, is more common than is generally reported or previously appreciated. Although viral contaminants of biotech products are thought to originate principally from biological raw materials, all potential process risks merit evaluation. Limitations to existing methods for virus detection are becoming evident as emerging viruses have contaminated facilities and disrupted supplies of critical products. New technologies, such as broad-based polymerase chain reaction screens for multiple virus types, are increasingly becoming available to detect adventitious viral contamination and thus, mitigate risks to biotech products and processes. Further, the industry embrace of quality risk management that promotes improvements in testing stratagems, enhanced viral inactivation methods for raw materials, implementation and standardization of robust viral clearance procedures, and efforts to learn from both epidemiologic screening of raw material sources and from the experience of other manufacturers with regard to this problem will serve to enhance the safety of biotech products available to patients. Based on this evolving landscape, we propose a set of principles for manufacturers of biotech products: Pillars of Risk Mitigation for Viral Contamination of Biotech Products. ©PDA, Inc. 2011. Source

Schiel J.E.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Lute S.C.,Office of Biotechnology Products | Chavez B.K.,Office of Biotechnology Products | Boyne M.T.,Office of Testing and Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Consistent high-quality antibody yield is a key goal for cell culture bioprocessing. This endpoint is typically achieved in commercial settings through product and process engineering of bioreactor parameters during development. When the process is complex and not optimized, small changes in composition and control may yield a finished product of less desirable quality. Therefore, changes proposed to currently validated processes usually require justification and are reported to the US FDA for approval. Recently, design-of-experiments-based approaches have been explored to rapidly and efficiently achieve this goal of optimized yield with a better understanding of product and process variables that affect a product's critical quality attributes. Here, we present a laboratory-scale model culture where we apply a Plackett-Burman screening design to parallel cultures to study the main effects of 11 process variables. This exercise allowed us to determine the relative importance of these variables and identify the most important factors to be further optimized in order to control both desirable and undesirable glycan profiles. We found engineering changes relating to culture temperature and nonessential amino acid supplementation significantly impacted glycan profiles associated with fucosylation, β-galactosylation, and sialylation. All of these are important for monoclonal antibody product quality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association. Source

Rosenberg A.S.,Office of Biotechnology Products | Pariser A.R.,Office of Translational science | Diamond B.,Feinstein Institute for Medical Research | Yao L.,Office of New Drugs | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Immunology | Year: 2016

Antibody responses to life saving therapeutic protein products, such as enzyme replacement therapies (ERT) in the setting of lysosomal storage diseases, have nullified product efficacy and caused clinical deterioration and death despite treatment with immune-suppressive therapies. Moreover, in some autoimmune diseases, pathology is mediated by a robust antibody response to endogenous proteins such as is the case in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, mediated by antibodies to Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF). In this work, we make the case that in such settings, when the antibody response is high titered, sustained, and refractory to immune suppressive treatments, the antibody response is mediated by long-lived plasma cells which are relatively unperturbed by immune suppressants including rituximab. However, long-lived plasma cells can be targeted by proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib. Recent reports of successful reversal of antibody responses with bortezomib in the settings of ERT and Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) argue that the safety and efficacy of such plasma cell targeting agents should be evaluated in larger scale clinical trials to delineate the risks and benefits of such therapies in the settings of antibody-mediated adverse effects to therapeutic proteins and autoantibody mediated pathology. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

Brorson K.,Office of Biotechnology Products | Jia A.Y.,Office of Biotechnology Products
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are biological macromolecules with complex post-translational modifications that can be observed when assessing product variants. The N- and C-terminal heterogeneities of commercially produced antibodies have been observed and extensively studied over the past 30 years. This review summarizes the current literature on detectable antibody termini variants from cultured cells. The presence of these heterogeneities can be detected by many different analytical methods, mostly based on sequence, charge and size differences. Examples are presented that highlight terminal heterogeneities, methods of detection, and their impact on the quality of mAbs. Regulatory considerations are also discussed regarding the potential impact on product quality, safety, and efficacy. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zhang M.,Genentech | Miesegaes G.R.,Office of Biotechnology Products | Lee M.,Genentech | Coleman D.,Genentech | And 6 more authors.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering | Year: 2014

Protein A chromatography is widely used as a capture step in monoclonal antibody (mAb) purification processes. Antibodies and Fc fusion proteins can be efficiently purified from the majority of other complex components in harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF). Protein A chromatography is also capable of removing modest levels of viruses and is often validated for viral clearance. Historical data mining of Genentech and FDA/CDER databases systematically evaluated the removal of model viruses by Protein A chromatography. First, we found that for each model virus, removal by Protein A chromatography varies significantly across mAbs, while remains consistent within a specific mAb product, even across the acceptable ranges of the process parameters. In addition, our analysis revealed a correlation between retrovirus and parvovirus removal, with retrovirus data generally possessing a greater clearance factor. Finally, we describe a multivariate approach used to evaluate process parameter impacts on viral clearance, based on the levels of retrovirus-like particles (RVLP) present among process characterization study samples. It was shown that RVLP removal by Protein A is robust, that is, parameter effects were not observed across the ranges tested. Robustness of RVLP removal by Protein A also correlates with that for other model viruses such as X-MuLV, MMV, and SV40. The data supports that evaluating RVLP removal using process characterization study samples can establish multivariate acceptable ranges for virus removal by the protein A step for QbD. By measuring RVLP instead of a model retrovirus, it may alleviate some of the technical and economic challenges associated with performing large, design-of-experiment (DoE)-type virus spiking studies. This approach could also serve to provide useful insight when designing strategies to ensure viral safety in the manufacturing of a qbiopharmaceutical product. © 2013 The Authors. Source

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