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Hutter J.C.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Kim C.S.,Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2014

We have previously measured the distribution and pharmacokinetics of biosynthetically radiolabeled endotoxin of Salmonella typhimurium following intraperitoneal (IP) dosing (200 μg/kg) in Sprague-Dawley rats. In our experiments, the fatty acid residues were labeled with 3H and the glucosamine residues were labeled with 14C. To predict the dynamics of endotoxin exposure, we developed a physiological-based pharmacokinetic model using our measured distribution results. The model was validated with published low-dose (30 μg/kg) IP exposure results in rats. Endotoxin pharmacokinetics depended on dose and route. At high IP doses, absorption was followed by biphasic decay over 48 h in plasma. There were tissue accumulations of the fatty acid and glucosamine residues in various target organs, including the brain. We also found that the glucosamine and fatty acid components separated in vivo about 3 h after IP injection. At the lower IP dose, a smaller fraction of the dose was distributed to the tissues, with most of the dose remaining in the blood. Each component had its own dynamic behavior and target tissue distribution in the rat. The fatty acid components tended to remain in the brain stem, caudate nucleus, cerebellum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. Other organs (spleen, kidney, meninges, and choroid plexus) had similar biphasic distribution. The liver had the unique accumulation of both glucosamine and fatty acid residues. © The Author(s) 2012.

Vinella D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Vinella D.,CNRS Institute of Chemistry | Vinella D.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Potrykus K.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2012

It is well known that ppGpp and DksA interact with bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) to alter promoter activity. This study suggests that GreA plays a major role and GreB plays a minor role in the ppGpp-DksA regulatory network. We present evidence that DksA and GreA/GreB are redundant and/or share similar functions: (i) on minimal medium GreA overproduction suppresses the growth defects of a dksA mutant; (ii) GreA and DksA overexpression partially suppresses the auxotrophy of a ppGppdeficient strain; (iii) microarrays show that many genes are regulated similarly by GreA and DksA. We also find instances where GreA and DksA seem to act in opposition: (i) complete suppression of auxotrophy occurs by overexpression of GreA or DksA only in the absence of the other protein; (ii) PgadA and PgadE promoter fusions, along with many other genes, are dramatically affected in vivo by GreA overproduction only when DksA is absent; (iii) GreA and DksA show opposite regulation of a subset of genes. Mutations in key acidic residues of GreA and DksA suggest that properties seen here probably are not explained by known biochemical activities of these proteins. Our results indicate that the general pattern of gene expression and, in turn, the ability of Escherichia coli to grow under a defined condition are the result of a complex interplay between GreA, GreB, and DksA that also involves mutual control of their gene expression, competition for RNA polymerase binding, and similar or opposite action on RNA polymerase activity. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

Mechold U.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Mechold U.,CNRS Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology | Potrykus K.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Potrykus K.,University of Gdansk | And 4 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2013

Both ppGpp and pppGpp are thought to function collectively as second messengers for many complex cellular responses to nutritional stress throughout biology. There are few indications that their regulatory effects might be different; however, this question has been largely unexplored for lack of an ability to experimentally manipulate the relative abundance of ppGpp and pppGpp. Here, we achieve preferential accumulation of either ppGpp or pppGpp with Escherichia coli strains through induction of different Streptococcal (p)ppGpp synthetase fragments. In addition, expression of E. coli GppA, a pppGpp 5 0 -gamma phosphate hydrolase that converts pppGpp to ppGpp, is manipulated to fine tune differential accumulation of ppGpp and pppGpp. In vivo and in vitro experiments show that pppGpp is less potent than ppGpp with respect to regulation of growth rate, RNA/DNA ratios, ribosomal RNA P1 promoter transcription inhibition, threonine operon promoter activation and RpoS induction. To provide further insights into regulation by (p)ppGpp, we have also determined crystal structures of E. coli RNA polymerase-p 70 holoenzyme with ppGpp and pppGpp. We find that both nucleotides bind to a site at the interface between β′ and ω subunits. © 2013 The Author(s) 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

Potrykus K.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Murphy H.,Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment | Philippe N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Cashel M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

It is widely accepted that the DNA, RNA and protein content of Enterobacteriaceae is regulated as a function of exponential growth rates; macromolecular content increases with faster growth regardless of specific composition of the growth medium. This phenomenon, called growth rate control, primarily involves regulation of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal protein synthesis. However, it was uncertain whether the global regulator ppGpp is the major determinant for growth rate control. Therefore, here we re-evaluate the effect of ppGpp on macromolecular content for different balanced growth rates in defined media. We find that when ppGpp is absent, RNA/protein and RNA/DNA ratios are equivalent in fast and slow growing cells. Moreover, slow growing ppGpp-deficient cells with increased RNA content, display a normal ribosomal subunit composition although polysome content is reduced when compared with fast growing wild-type cells. From this we conclude that growth rate control does not occur in the absence of ppGpp. Also, artificial elevation of ppGpp or introduction of stringent RNA polymerase mutants in ppGpp-deficient cells restores this control. We believe these findings strongly argue in favour of ppGpp and against redundant regulation of growth rate control by other factors in Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Steinsland H.,University of Bergen | Steinsland H.,Michigan State University | Lacher D.W.,Michigan State University | Lacher D.W.,Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2010

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of diarrhea among children living in and among travelers visiting developing countries. Human ETEC strains represent an epidemiologically and phenotypically diverse group of pathogens, and there is a need to identify natural groupings of these organisms that may help to explain this diversity. Here, we sought to identify most of the important human ETEC lineages that exist in the E. coli population, because strains that originate from the same lineage may also have inherited many of the same epidemiological and phenotypic traits. We performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on 1,019 ETEC isolates obtained from humans in different countries and analyzed the data against a backdrop of MLST data from 1,250 non-ETEC E. coli and eight ETEC isolates from pigs. A total of 42 different lineages were identified, 15 of which, representing 792 (78%) of the strains, were estimated to have emerged >900 years ago. Twenty of the lineages were represented in more than one country. There was evidence of extensive exchange of enterotoxin and colonization factor genes between different lineages. Human and porcine ETEC have probably emerged from the same ancestral ETEC lineage on at least three occasions. Our findings suggest that most ETEC strains circulating in the human population today originate from well-established, globally widespread ETEC lineages. Some of the more important lineages identified here may represent a smaller and more manageable target for the ongoing efforts to develop effective ETEC vaccines. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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