Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage ONCFS

Nantes, France

Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage ONCFS

Nantes, France
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Richomme C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Boschiroli M.L.,Unite Zoonoses Bacteriennes | Hars J.,Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage ONCFS | Casabianca F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ducrot C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2010

The zoonotic agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), Mycobacterium bovis, can be transmitted between domestic and wild animals, threatening wildlife populations and control programs for bTB in cattle. In Corsica, a French Mediterranean island where domestic and wild species have close interactions, bTB cases have been reported in cattle, pigs, and wild boar. Moreover, genotypes of M. bovis found in wild and domestic animals from the same area were identical. These data strongly suggest that wild and domestic animals are associated in an epidemiologic bTB-transmission cycle. More investigations are needed, not only to understand the role played by each species in order to implement appropriate control measures, but also to assess the risk of transmission to humans. © Wildlife Disease Association 2010.

Powolny T.,Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage ONCFS | Powolny T.,CNRS Chizé Center for Biological Studies | Eraud C.,Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage ONCFS | Bretagnolle V.,CNRS Chizé Center for Biological Studies
Journal of Ornithology | Year: 2012

Skylarks (Alauda arvensis) are known to adopt a typical aggregative behaviour during the wintering period. A further benefit is that individuals in larger groups can decrease the amount of time they spent being vigilant, while maintaining a high probability of predator detection. Using wild birds temporarily housed in outdoor aviaries, we investigated the influence of group size (1, 2 and 4 individuals) on individual time budget (vigilance vs. foraging), and the pecking (number of pecks) and intake rates (number of seeds consumed). Results showed that individuals reduced their vigilance and increased their pecking rate when group size increased. However, the intake rate was not maximised in the largest group suggesting that large flocks would negatively affect individual foraging efficiency. A consideration of the whole set of costs and benefits will be necessary before the adaptive value of group living in any species can be fully assessed. © 2011 Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V.

Avril A.,University of Lyon | Avril A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Letty J.,Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage ONCFS | Pradel R.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 3 more authors.
Ecology | Year: 2012

Behavioral ecologists have often assumed that dispersal is costly mainly because of unfamiliarity with traversed habitats during dispersal and energy costs of the movement per se; thus, dispersers that have successfully settled should experience survival rates comparable to those of philopatric individuals. In this paper, we tested that hypothesis using 152 radiocollared European hares in a harvested population. We developed a multi-event capture- recapture model, combining telemetry data and recoveries and separately modeling the foray probability, the settlement probability, and the permanent dispersal probability. The parameterization introduced here raises the possibility of separately testing effects on survival and dispersal probabilities at each stage of dispersal (departure, transience, and settlement). In accordance with our expectations, we reveal that dispersers incur higher mortality risks during transience and the early settlement period than philopatric individuals or settled dispersers. We also found that dispersers suffer from higher risks of being shot. Those results illustrate that unfamiliarity with the habitat during transience makes dispersal costly and that settled dispersers may enjoy survival rates comparable to those of philopatric individuals. Surprisingly, we also found that individuals have a higher probability of foraying during the hunting season. We suggest that hunting and related disturbances increase dispersal costs both by increasing mortality risk during transience and (perhaps) by increasing movement rates. We emphasize the need to take human pressures into account as factors that may drive the demographics of movements in populations. © 2012 by the Ecological Society of America.

Bleu J.,CNRS Alpine Ecology Laboratory | Bleu J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Loison A.,CNRS Alpine Ecology Laboratory | Toigo C.,Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage ONCFS
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2014

Life-history theory predicts trade-offs in energy allocation between different life-history traits when resources are limited, i.e. certain traits should be negatively correlated. However, individuals differ in their ability to acquire resources, which can lead to positive correlations between traits at the population level. Here, we investigated the consequences of the allocation in horn growth and body mass on survival in a bovid (Rupicapra rupicapra) with capture-mark re-sighting data on 161 females. In female ungulates, body mass often covaries positively with demographic performance and the few studies on horn size suggest that this trait could be a signal of individual quality. Thus, we expected to measure positive correlations between the allocation in these traits and female survival. However, body mass was not correlated to female survival and there was only a negative, though marginal, effect of horn growth. Hence, it seems that the allocation in growth is not an indicator of female quality. Future studies could investigate the importance of growth on female reproduction to evaluate its effect on lifetime reproductive success. Moreover, it is important to confirm in other populations our result that suggests a cost of the allocation in horn growth to better understand the presence of horns in female bovids. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London.

Guzman J.L.,Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos | Ferrand Y.,Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage ONCFS | Arroyo B.,Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2010

Woodcock Scolopax rusticola is an important game species in Northern Spain, where it is mainly a wintering species. Knowledge about the migration and origin of the woodcock wintering in Spain is relatively sparse, existing to date only qualitative analyses dating more than a decade. From the analyses of ringing recoveries of woodcock wintering in Spain, we evaluate the relative importance of various countries or regions as sources of the woodcock wintering in Spain, an estimate of their migratory route. Our analyses show the Circum-Baltic Region to be the most important breeding area of the woodcock wintering in Spain. Within that area, both Sweden and Western Russia appear to be particularly important. Analyses of the ringing locations of woodcock ringed during migration and recovered in Spain in winter suggest that woodcock wintering in Spain migrate primarily through the South of the Baltic Sea, Germany and France. The proportion of woodcock ringed in different French regions during the postnuptial migration months (October and November) that was subsequently recovered in Spain (mainly through hunting) declined with the proportion of those birds that was recovered in France (also mainly through hunting). We discuss the management implications of these results. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Broyer J.,Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage ONCFS | Chavas G.,Federation des Chasseurs de la Loire | Chazal R.,Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage ONCFS
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2016

Fishponds are man-made aquatic systems subjected to more or less active management by fish farmers. They also are an important habitat category for waterbirds. In this study, we attempted to assess the consequences for duck breeding of fish farming interruption in a typical French fishpond region, the Forez, where fish production has declined strongly since the 1990s. Duck pair density, a brood: pair ratio and mean brood size were studied in two successive periods, 2010–2012 and 2013–2015, in 19 ponds abandoned for fish farming between 2008 and 2010, and in 34 ponds still stocked with fish among which 17 were harvested every 2 or 3 years and 17 harvested annually. Between the two study periods, a decrease in abandoned ponds was observed in diving duck (Aythya species) and red-crested pochard Netta rufina pair density and for dabbling duck (Anas species) and red-crested pochard brood: pair ratio. A possible explanation is that fish influenced the nutrient level within the aquatic ecosystem through bioresuspension of phosphorus when stirring the sediment for feeding and through nitrogen production by excretions. Decreased brood sizes in ponds still used for traditional fish farming are suggested to be the result of density-dependent predation rates. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

Broyer J.,Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage ONCFS | Sukhanova O.,Russian Society for Bird Conservation and Study BirdsRussia | Mischenko A.,Russian Society for Bird Conservation and Study BirdsRussia
Bird Study | Year: 2014

Capsule: Improving habitat quality through late or intermittent mowing may increase passerine population density without reducing reproductive success. Aim: To describe the relationship between passerine territory density (TD) and Whinchat Saxicola rubetra and Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava hatching success, under different management regimes. Methods: TD was defined by the Territory Mapping method in nine sites selected in five French flood plains, in four intermittently mown meadows in Russia and in four additional French sites where mowing was partially postponed. Hatching success was assessed by the observation of prey carrying. Generalized Linear Mixed Models were used to analyse the influence on hatching rates of mowing management, early mowing and TD. Linear Mixed Models were used to study the effect of mowing management on TD. Results: In French early mown meadows, TD affected reproductive success. Higher hatching rates and TD were observed in Russia. Similar results in French study sites with postponed mowing confirmed the influence of mowing management on carrying capacity. Conclusion: In west-European grassland systems, late or intermittently mown patches within or at the edge of meadow areas, with potentially improved invertebrate-prey availability, should help to sustain bird demography and improve the efficiency of current conservation programmes. © 2014 British Trust for Ornithology.

Broyer J.,Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage ONCFS | Sukhanova O.,Russian Society for Bird Conservation and Study BirdsRussia | Mischenko A.,Russian Society for Bird Conservation and Study BirdsRussia
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2016

Two decades of agri-environmental policy did not prevent a long term decline of grassland birds in Europe. Additional measures are therefore needed to sustain the populations. This study explored alternative mowing management regimes likely to secure demographic sources in the early mown grassland systems of western Europe, and to limit habitat loss after farming abandonment in countries of the former Eastern Bloc. Postponing grass cutting until after mid-July from 2009 to 2014 in half of the area of 4 study sites (29-55. ha each) in the Saône Valley (France), led to increased territory density and improved hatching success. Bird response however was species-specific: Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra territory density benefited the most from the alternative management, Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava territory distribution tended to match the late mown areas, whereas the Whinchat Saxicola rubetra did not change its initial distribution. Temporary interruption of mowing in 8 meadow units (11.7-15.1. ha) of the Moskva Valley (Central Russia) was similarly correlated with higher territory density. Whinchat territory density decreased after one single year of mowing. After two consecutive years of mowing, Whinchat hatching success was lower and the Lesser Citrine Wagtail Motacilla citreola werae virtually disappeared. The tested alternative mowing regimes may therefore locally increase population density without negative density dependent effects on hatching rates. Implementing rotational mowing could reduce habitat loss caused by farming abandonment in Russia. Postponing mowing until after mid-July in patches of hay fields may sustain meadow bird demography in the remaining strongholds of western Europe. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Le 10 juillet 2011, sur la commune de Saint-Sylvestre en Haute-Vienne, une plante inhabituelle qui émerge massivement dans un étang privé est observée. Une détermination collective avec le Conservatoire botanique national du Massif Central (CBNMC) antenne Limousin, fait conclure à Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michaux. L'article fait le point sur cette espèce considérée comme exotique envahissante en Europe mais qui n'avait pas fait l'objet d'un signalement dédié ni d'un bilan sur sa situation en France et en Europe en milieu naturel. © 2013 OEPP/EPPO.

Niqueux E.,AFSSA French Agency for Food Safety | Guionie O.,AFSSA French Agency for Food Safety | Schmitz A.,AFSSA French Agency for Food Safety | Hars J.,Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage ONCFS | Jestin V.,AFSSA French Agency for Food Safety
Avian Diseases | Year: 2010

Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) subtype H5N1 (subclade 2.2) were detected in wild birds during outbreaks in France during winter 2006 and summer 2007 in la Dombes wetlands (eastern France) and in Moselle wetlands (northeastern France), respectively. Blood samples from apparently healthy wild birds were collected in 2006 and 2007 from the end of the outbreak to several weeks after the influenza A outbreak inside and outside the contaminated areas, and in 2008 outside the contaminated areas. The samples were tested for the presence and/or quantitation of serum antibodies to influenza A subtypes H5 and N1 using hemagglutination inhibition tests (HITs), a commercial N1-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, and virus neutralization assay. In the HIT, low pathogenicity (LP) and HP H5 AIVs (belonging to H5N1, H5N2, and H5N3 subtypes) were used as antigens. One hundred mute swans were bled in the la Dombes outbreak area in 2006. During 2007, 46 mallards, 69 common pochards, and 59 mute swans were sampled in the Moselle outbreak area. For comparison, blood samples were also collected in 2007 from 60 mute swans from the Marne department where no HP H5N1 influenza A cases have been reported, and in 2008 from 111 sacred ibises in western France where no HP H5N1 influenza A infections in wild birds have been reported either. Mute swans (irrespective of their origin and time of sampling) and sacred ibises (from an area with no known outbreaks) had the highest prevalence of positive sera in the H5 HIT (49-69% and 64%, respectively). The prevalence of anti-H5 antibodies in mallards and common pochards was lower (28% and 27%, respectively). Positive H5- and N1-antibody responses were also significantly associated in swans (irrespective of their origin and time of sampling) and in sacred ibises. However, in swans from the area without outbreaks, the HIT titer against an H5N1 LPAIV was significantly higher than against an H5N1 2.2.1 HPAIV, whereas no difference could be shown for swans from the outbreak areas sampled in 2006 and 2007. These results suggest that ibises and swans from areas without declared outbreaks had acquired humoral immunity after AIV infections with subtypes H5 and N1 but independently from HP H5N1 infection. However, for swans living in outbreak areas, it cannot be excluded that this immunity might result from either a subclinical or a nonlethal infection by HP H5N1. © 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

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