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The Office for National Statistics is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament. Wikipedia.


Smallwood S.,Office for National Statistics - ONS
Population trends | Year: 2010

This article uses data for members of the ONS Longitudinal Study (LS) from both Census 2001 enumeration and patient registrations "frozen" on census day 2001 from the National Health Service Central Register (NHSCR) to examine potential sources of difference in area of usual residence.Overall 95.7 per cent of ONS LS members enumerated at census resided in the same area as recorded on the NHSCR data. Where areas differed, or the ONS LS member was not on the NHSCR on census day, subsequent NHSCR records were examined. Records flagged on the NHSCR as ONS LS members in England and Wales on census day but with no census record were also investigated. Source


Hill C.,Office for National Statistics - ONS
Health statistics quarterly / Office for National Statistics | Year: 2011

Annually, there are around 30,000 coroner's inquests held in England and Wales that conclude with a verdict. 'Short form' verdicts such as accident or misadventure; natural causes; suicide; and homicide make up the majority of all verdict conclusions. 'Narrative' verdicts can be used by a coroner or jury, instead of a short form verdict, to express their conclusions as to the cause of death following an inquest. Since 2001 narrative verdicts have been more widely used, with over 3,000 narrative verdicts returned in 2009. In some cases, it can be difficult to code the underlying cause of death from the information provided in the narrative. For some time, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and other organisations have been concerned about the impact of narrative verdicts on the quality of the statistics on cause of death. Our research investigated the impact of narrative verdicts on trends for deaths attributed to injury and poisoning in England and Wales. The research considered narrative verdicts received by ONS between 2001 and 2009. All available information provided by the coroner from the narrative verdict, together with the underlying cause of death, was used in the analysis. All causes of death where a narrative verdict was returned were investigated. More in-depth analysis of accidental deaths was undertaken, as classification of these deaths by intent is more difficult when the information from the coroner is imprecise. A sensitivity analysis of suicide rates (intentional self-harm and event of undetermined intent) was carried out. This involved using two different scenarios of reclassifying selected proportions of accidental hanging and poisoning deaths, where a narrative verdict was returned, as intentional self-harm. An exercise to measure the consistency of coding cause of death from narrative verdicts was also undertaken. The increasing proportion of narrative verdicts involving injury and poisoning has not significantly affected published mortality rates for suicide (intentional self-harm and injury or poisoning of undetermined intent). However, if the rise in narrative verdicts continues at the same rate, the accurate reporting of injury and poisoning deaths, including suicides, is likely to be affected. The exercise to establish the consistency of coding the cause of death by ONS cause coders showed that the current coding rules were being applied uniformly. The increase in the use of narrative verdicts by coroners has not had a statistically significant impact on published suicide rates in England and Wales and so no revision to these rates is needed. A review of current coding practices and the handling of narrative verdicts will be undertaken by ONS with particular reference to deaths from intentional self-harm. A recommendation has been made to coroners to consider ways of recording narrative verdicts to allow more accurate coding of cause of death. This will ensure that mortality statistics are maintained to the highest standards.List of Tables, 83. Source


Gao W.,Kings College London | Ho Y.K.,Kings College London | Verne J.,South West Public Health Observatory | Glickman M.,Office for National Statistics - ONS | Higginson I.J.,Kings College London
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Most patients with cancer prefer to die at home or in a hospice, but hospitals remain the most common place of death (PoD).This study aims to explore the changing time trends of PoD and the associated factors, which are essential for end-of-life care improvement. Methods and Findings: The study analysed all cancer deaths in England collected by the Office for National Statistics during 1993-2010 (n = 2,281,223). Time trends of age- and gender-standardised proportion of deaths in individual PoDs were evaluated using weighted piecewise linear regression. Variables associated with PoD (home or hospice versus hospital) were determined using proportion ratio (PR) derived from the log-binomial regression, adjusting for clustering effects. Hospital remained the most common PoD throughout the study period (48.0%; 95% CI 47.9%-48.0%), followed by home (24.5%; 95% CI 24.4%-24.5%), and hospice (16.4%; 95% CI 16.3%-16.4%). Home and hospice deaths increased since 2005 (0.87%; 95% CI 0.74%-0.99%/year, 0.24%; 95% CI 0.17%-0.32%/year, respectively, p<0.001), while hospital deaths declined (-1.20%; 95% CI -1.41 to -0.99/year, p<0.001). Patients who died from haematological cancer (PRs 0.46-0.52), who were single, widowed, or divorced (PRs 0.75-0.88), and aged over 75 (PRs 0.81-0.84 for 75-84; 0.66-0.72 for 85+) were less likely to die in home or hospice (p<0.001; reference groups: colorectal cancer, married, age 25-54). There was little improvement in patients with lung cancer of dying in home or hospice (PRs 0.87-0.88). Marital status became the second most important factor associated with PoD, after cancer type. Patients from less deprived areas (higher quintile of the deprivation index) were more likely to die at home or in a hospice than those from more deprived areas (lower quintile of the deprivation index; PRs 1.02-1.12). The analysis is limited by a lack of data on individual patients' preferences for PoD or a clinical indication of the most appropriate PoD. Conclusions: More efforts are needed to reduce hospital deaths. Health care facilities should be improved and enhanced to support the increased home and hospice deaths. People who are single, widowed, or divorced should be a focus for end-of-life care improvement, along with known at risk groups such as haematological cancer, lung cancer, older age, and deprivation. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. © 2013 Gao et al. Source


Leon D.A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Moser K.A.,Office for National Statistics - ONS
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health | Year: 2012

Background The mean birth weight of offspring of Bangladeshi, Indian and Pakistani women tends to be among the lowest of any ethnic groups regardless of country of residence. However, it is unclear whether the mean birth weight of South Asian offspring born in England and Wales is higher among those whose mothers were themselves born in England and Wales compared to those whose mothers were born in the Indian sub-continent. Methods We used cross-sectional data from a unique linkage of routine records for the whole of England and Wales (2005-2006, n=861 654) to estimate mean birth weights of the live singleton offspring of Bangladeshi, Indian, Pakistani or White British ethnicity according to whether maternal place of birth was England and Wales or the Indian sub-continent. Results Offspring of women born in the Indian subcontinent were slightly heavier at birth than offspring of South Asian women born in England and Wales even after adjustment for gestational age, maternal age and parity (Bangladeshi 28 g, 95% CI 10 to 46; Indian 31 g, 95% CI 20 to 42; Pakistani 21 g, 95% CI 12 to 29). Conclusions There is no indication that the mean birth weight of South Asian offspring of women born in England and Wales is higher than the mean birth weight of those whose mothers were born in the Indian subcontinent. This suggests a shared physiological tendency for down-regulation of fetal growth transmissible across generations. Within the UK, there is unlikely to be any appreciable increase in mean birth weight of South Asian babies over the next few decades. Source


Johnson B.,Office for National Statistics - ONS
Health statistics quarterly / Office for National Statistics | Year: 2011

Health inequalities among socio-economic groups are well documented. One of the measures used to track inequalities over time is the series 'Trends in life expectancy by social class, 1972-2005', on the Office for National Statistics website. In 2001 the National Statistics Socio-economic Classification (NS-SEC), replaced Registrar General's social class (RGSC) for the purposes of official statistics. This paper describes the challenges involved in producing an analogous series of trends in life expectancy by NS-SEC to that by RGSC, the approach adopted, and publishes the first results of the new series. NS-SEC was devised in the 1990s and introduced in 2001. Like RGSC, it is an occupation-based measure. In order to produce a series of trends over more than 20 years based on NS-SEC, it is necessary to classify people according to NS-SEC based on their occupation at the 1981 and 1991 Censuses and then to measure subsequent mortality rates for different classes. The 1981 Census preceded the construction of the NS-SEC classification system by nearly 20 years, and there was no recognised way of classifying 1981 Census respondents by NS-SEC. This paper describes how an approximation to allow such a classification was derived. The ONS Longitudinal Study was used to provide the data from which mortality and survival rates by NS-SEC class could then be estimated. The results are presented in terms of life expectancy at birth and at age 65 by five-year calendar periods, from 1982-86 to 2002-06. A social gradient was found using NS-SEC, similar to the one found using RGSC. For most classes for all periods studied, life expectancy improved for both males and females but inequalities persisted between classes. There was a difference of around six years for males between the most and least advantaged classes in expectation of life at birth and about four years for females in the period 2002-06. The estimates suggested a widening of inequalities over the study period for men, which appeared to end after 2001. For women, no overall trend could be detected, but there were no signs of any narrowing of the gap in the most recent period. NS-SEC can be used to provide medium-term trends in life expectancy by occupation based class, which will be capable of extension over time, although certain approximations are necessary. It is important that work should continue on investigating other means of classification, particularly for women, for example based on educational attainment and on household rather than individual-based measures.List of Tables, 12. Source

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