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Fredrikstad, Norway

Ulleberg E.K.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Comi I.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Holm H.,University of Oslo | Herud E.B.,Oestfold Hospital Trust | And 2 more authors.
Food Digestion | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to characterise the individual human gastric and duodenal juices to be used in in vitro model digestion and to examine the storage stability of the enzymes. Gastroduodenal juices were aspirated, and individual variations in enzymatic activities as well as total volumes, pH, bile acids, protein and bilirubin concentrations were recorded. Individual pepsin activity in the gastric juice varied by a factor of 10, while individual total proteolytic activity in the duodenal juice varied by a factor of 5. The duodenal amylase activity varied from 0 to 52.6 U/ml, and the bile acid concentration varied from 0.9 to 4.5 mM. Pooled gastric and duodenal juices from 18 volunteers were characterised according to pepsin activity (26.7 U/ml), total proteolytic activity (14.8 U/ml), lipase activity (951.0 U/ml), amylase activity (26.8 U/ml) and bile acids (4.5 mM). Stability of the main enzymes in two frozen batches of either gastric or duodenal juice was studied for 6 months. Pepsin activity decreased rapidly and adjusting the pH of gastric juice to 4 did not protect the pepsin from degradation. Lipase activity remained stable for 4 months, however decreased rapidly thereafter even after the addition of protease inhibitors. Glycerol only marginally stabilised the survival of the enzymatic activities. These results of compositional variations in the individual gastrointestinal juices and the effect of storage conditions on enzyme activities are useful for the design of in vitro models enabling human digestive juices to simulate physiological digestion. © 2011 The Author(s). Source


Trope A.,Akershus University Hospital | Sjoborg K.D.,Oestfold Hospital Trust | Nygard M.,Cancer Registry of Norway | Roysland K.,Cancer Registry of Norway | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

We carried out a prospective study comparing the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA (PreTect HPVProofer; NorChip, Klokkarstua, Norway) and DNA (Amplicor HPV test; Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) triage testing of women 6 to 12 months after atypical-squamous-cells-of- undetermined-significance (ASCUS) or low-grade-squamous-intraepithelial-lesion (LSIL) cytology in organized screening to predict high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) between screening rounds. Between January 2005 and April 2008, 692 study women with screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL cytology 6 to 12 months earlier returned for HPV mRNA and DNA testing and repeat cytology. The median follow-up time was 3 years, using existing health care facilities. Follow-up test results were available for 625 women. Of the 145 CIN2+ cases detected during the study period, 95 (65.5%) were HPV mRNA positive 6 to 12 months after screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL, 44 (30.4%) were HPV mRNA negative, and 6 (4.1%) were invalid. The corresponding HPV DNA results were 139 (95.9%), 5 (3.4%), and 1 (0.7%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after a negative HPV mRNA and DNA test were 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2 to 13.3%) and 1.8% (95% CI, 0.0 to 3.6%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after positive HPV mRNA and DNA tests were 52.8% (95% CI, 40.1 to 60.1%) and 41.3% (95% CI, 35.5 to 46.6%), respectively. In conclusion, both positive HPV mRNA and DNA test results have a high enough long-term prediction of CIN2+ risk to consider referral to colposcopy as good practice when performed in delayed triage of women with ASCUS/LSIL cytology. In addition, the low CIN2+ risk among women with a negative Amplicor HPV test in our study confirms its safe use in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Aarak K.E.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Aarak K.E.,Norwegian Institute of Food | Kirkhus B.,Norwegian Institute of Food | Holm H.,University of Oslo | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

In the present study, we hypothesised whether in vitro digestion of salmon oil would release different amounts of PUFA depending on the origin of the lipolytic enzymes used. For this purpose, in vitro digestion of salmon oil (SO) was performed using human duodenal juice (HDJ) or a commercial enzyme preparation consisting of porcine pancreatin and bile (PB). The lipolytic effect was determined by measuring the release of fatty acids (FA) using solid-phase extraction and GC-flame ionisation detection, withdrawing samples every 20 min during digestion. The amount of FA released indicated that a plateau was reached after 80 min with approximately similar amounts of FA detected using both HDJ and PB (379 (SD 18) and 352 (SD 23) mg/g SO, respectively). However, the release of 18 : 2, EPA (20 : 5) and DHA (22 : 6) was significantly different during in vitro digestion. At 80 min, HDJ and PB released 43 and 33% of 18 : 2, 14 and 9% of EPA and 11 and 9% of DHA, respectively. Both enzyme preparations released approximately the same amounts of the other FA analysed. The effect of the addition of bile salts (BS) was significantly different in the two enzyme systems, where porcine pancreatin highly responded to the increase in BS concentration, in contrast to HDJ. © The Authors 2013. Source


Dalbye R.,Oestfold Hospital Trust | Dalbye R.,Gothenburg University | Calais E.,Gothenburg University | Calais E.,Uppsala University Hospital | Berg M.,Gothenburg University
Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare | Year: 2011

Objectives: Previous reports have shown that skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth is the optimal form of care for a full-term, healthy infant and its mother. As this is rarely researched the aim of this study was to explore experiences of skin-to-skin care in healthy mothers of healthy, full-term infants in the first days after birth. Study design: Using a lifeworld phenomenological approach, 20 women who had childbirth in hospital and were practising skin-to-skin care were interviewed 1-2. weeks after birth. Analysis of all interview texts was directed towards discovering qualitative meanings through a process of identifying meaning units. These were then clustered and analysed with the aim of describing themes of meaning and the essence of the phenomenon. Findings: The mothers wanted to give their newborn child the best possible care and the skin-to-skin care started a positive spiral. A mutual interaction developed which acted as a generator releasing energy to the mother who wanted to continue the practice which in terms increased mother-infant affinity. Happiness, peace and satisfaction were expressed by the newborns; also a child who was crying or troublesome exhibited a positive response to skin-to-skin care. Conclusion: The study provides insight and knowledge which should guide attitudes and promote practices of this simple healthcare intervention; skin-to-skin contact care to healthy infants born at term. Healthcare professionals should support affinity between a mother and her newborn through facilitation and the provision of information about its benefits. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Buyon J.P.,NYU Langone Medical Center | Kim M.Y.,Yeshiva University | Guerra M.M.,Hospital for Special Surgery | Laskin C.A.,Life Quest Center for Reproductive Medicine | And 11 more authors.
Annals of Internal Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Because systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) affects women of reproductive age, pregnancy is a major concern. Objective: To identify predictors of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) in patients with inactive or stable active SLE. Design: Prospective cohort. Setting: Multicenter. Patients: 385 patients (49% non-Hispanic white; 31% with prior nephritis) with SLE in the PROMISSE (Predictors of Pregnancy Outcome: Biomarkers in Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) study. Exclusion criteria were urinary protein-creatinine ratio greater than 1000 mg/g, creatinine level greater than 1.2 mg/dL, prednisone use greater than 20 mg/d, and multifetal pregnancy. Measurements: APOs included fetal or neonatal death; birth before 36 weeks due to placental insufficiency, hypertension, or preeclampsia; and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonate (birthweight below the fifth percentile). Disease activity was assessed with the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Pregnancy Disease Activity Index and the Physician's Global Assessment (PGA). Results: APOs occurred in 19.0% (95% CI, 15.2% to 23.2%) of pregnancies; fetal death occurred in 4%, neonatal death occurred in 1%, preterm delivery occurred in 9%, and SGA neonate occurred in 10%. Severe flares in the second and third trimesters occurred in 2.5% and 3.0%, respectively. Baseline predictors of APOs included presence of lupus anticoagulant (LAC) (odds ratio [OR], 8.32 [CI, 3.59 to 19.26]), antihypertensive use (OR, 7.05 [CI, 3.05 to 16.31]), PGA score greater than 1 (OR, 4.02 [CI, 1.84 to 8.82]), and low platelet count (OR, 1.33 [CI, 1.09 to 1.63] per decrease of 50 × 109 cells/L). Non-Hispanic white race was protective (OR, 0.45 [CI, 0.24 to 0.84]). Maternal flares, higher disease activity, and smaller increases in C3 level later in pregnancy also predicted APOs. Among women without baseline risk factors, the APO rate was 7.8%. For those who either were LACpositive or were LAC-negative but nonwhite or Hispanic and using antihypertensives, the APO rate was 58.0% and fetal or neonatal mortality was 22.0%. Limitation: Patients with high disease activity were excluded. Conclusion: In pregnant patients with inactive or stable mild/ moderate SLE, severe flares are infrequent and, absent specific risk factors, outcomes are favorable. © 2015 American College of Physicians. Source

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