Oerlikon Balzers Coating Germany GmbH

Bingen am Rhein, Germany

Oerlikon Balzers Coating Germany GmbH

Bingen am Rhein, Germany
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Becker J.,Oerlikon Balzers Coating Germany GmbH | Colas M.,University of Limoges | Gies A.,Balzers Ag | Hessel S.,Oerlikon Balzers Coating Germany GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2015

Carbon based coatings are well established in the automotive industry to solve tribological problems in automotive applications. In systems under high load and/or high contact pressures, these coatings are used to reduce friction and wear. Other coatings like chromium nitride are useful to prevent scuffing. However, a real challenge in evaluating coatings for their suitability in automotive applications is the broad range of conditions which defines the load collective of the tribological system.In this work, we focused on the thermal effects that might influence the stability and performance of coatings in tribological applications. In a car engine, the temperature range might be much broader than the - 20 °C to 120 °C as given by the average oil temperature. In the tribological contact zone the temperature can be higher up to several hundred degrees Celsius, especially if it comes temporary dry running due to starved lubrication. These locally high temperatures can affect the properties of a coated surface, but the coated surface itself might also have an influence on the temperature in the contact zone. This is especially the case, if coatings with low thermal conductivities like carbon based materials are used.Therefore, we focused our here presented work on the investigation of the influence of the temperature on the wear performance, the friction coefficient and the thermal stability of a DLC coating in unlubricated conditions. The DLC coating was submitted to dry running reciprocating sliding wear tests in a broad temperature range and then the thermal stability of the coating has been analyzed by means of hardness measurements (nanoinentation) and a structural approach (Raman spectroscopy). In addition, we analyzed the effect of a DLC coating on the tribological properties of a lubricated contact on a two-disc tribometer. These efforts were completed by measurements of the thermal conductivity of the DLC coating. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Gies A.,Balzers Ag | Chudoba T.,ASMEC GmbH | Schwarzer N.,Saxonian Institute of Surface Mechanics SIO | Becker J.,Oerlikon Balzers Coating Germany GmbH
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2013

In this work, homogeneous as well as gradient a-C:H:W coatings were deposited on a steel substrate. The mechanical properties of both coating systems were determined using nanoindentation. In addition, a multiaxial, 3-dimensional nanoindentation test (reciprocating wear test with nanometre resolution) was carried out in order to analyse the wear-performance of the two different coating systems.By comparing the wear-performance of the gradient coating system to the non-graduated one we were able to show that according to a theoretical approach proposed a few years ago the gradient coating systems lead to a better performance in micro-wear tests as well as in macro-scale wear tests.In addition, a new wear model taking into account the changing stress fields during the wear tests is proposed in order to simulate the wear behaviour of both coating systems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Stein S.,Balzers Ag | Lechthaler M.,Balzers Ag | Krassnitzer S.,Balzers Ag | Albrecht K.,Balzers Ag | And 2 more authors.
Procedia CIRP | Year: 2012

In order to evaluate performance and wear of gear cutters and coatings, various analogy cutting tests are nowadays used. Since these state-of-the-art tests significantly differ in complexity and comparability to real dry hobbing applications, this work presents a critical literature comparison highlighting the different characteristics, and further introduces a new approach to adjust the appearing wear characteristics by a simple analogy testing method. Moreover, substrate softening of PM-HSS during the cutting process has been analyzed and related to the relevance of the thermal barrier effect of coatings. The results are confirmed by calculations of the temperature evolution within the coating-substrate compound at constant contact temperature. © 2012 The Authors.

Keunecke M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films | Bewilogua K.,Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films | Becker J.,Oerlikon Balzers Coating Germany GmbH | Gies A.,Balzers Ag | Grischke M.,Balzers Ag
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2012

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, especially amorphous hydrogenated a-C:H and metal containing a-C:H:Me coatings are well established in the automotive industry as standard solutions to eliminate wear problems of highly loaded components due to their outstanding properties in terms of low friction coefficients under dry conditions. Under lubricated conditions the friction can be reduced once more by applying lubricants with special additives. For example the friction modifier MoDTC (molybdenum-dithio-carbamate) is used in many engine oils. Metal free a-C:H coatings were found to interact in a negative way with MoDTC in high concentrations. In order to overcome these problems CrC/a-C:H coatings with different Cr contents were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering, and tested systematically under lubricated conditions with and without MoDTC. The results were compared with those obtained for pure a-C:H. Hardness and abrasive wear were determined as a function of the Cr content and coating structure. With an increasing Cr content the morphology of the coatings became denser and the surfaces smoother. The hydrogen content in the coatings decreased continuously with increasing Cr contents and reached values close to 3. at% for chromium to carbon (Cr:C) ratios close to 1. Taking into account these hydrogen contents and sub-stoichiometric chromium carbide phases, a nanocomposite-like structure with chromium carbide phases embedded in an a-C:H binder matrix can be assumed. CrC/a-C:H coatings with Cr:C ratios in the range of 1, but having a notable amount of an amorphous a-C:H phase, showed to be an optimum solution under lubricated conditions with MoDTC because they exhibit both low friction and extremely low wear rates. The wear mechanism, especially the interaction with the friction modifier MoDTC will be discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Keferstein C.P.,University of Applied science Buchs | Marxer M.,University of Applied science Buchs | Gotti R.,University of Applied science Buchs | Thalmann R.,Federal Office of Metrology METAS | And 3 more authors.
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2012

Reference spheres play an important role in the accuracy of multisensor coordinate measuring machine (CMM) applications. Nowadays there are a number of spheres specialized in the characteristics of different CMM probing systems. This paper presents a unique reference sphere which meets sometimes contradictory requirements of different measurement principles. With this sphere it is possible to qualify all probing systems widely used today. It is suitable for contacting and non-contacting probing systems such as vision systems, chromatic and laser probes and Computed Tomography. With this sphere, it is possible to achieve tactile probing errors of less than 1 μm. © 2012 CIRP.

Brecher C.,RWTH Aachen | Hessel S.,Oerlikon Balzers Coating Germany GmbH
American Gear Manufacturers Association Fall Technical Meeting 2015, AGMA FTM 2015 | Year: 2015

In order to increase the power density of tribologically stressed drive train components, different approaches are being pursued in material and production technology. In addition to the development of efficient base materials, especially the optimization of surface finishing processes and the application of coating systems are promising. By combining mechanically highly stressable substrate materials and tribologically effective, extremely thin coatings, the components show modified wear and friction properties, which often lead to an increase of tooth flank load carrying capacity. A major advantage of this approach is that the highly accurate component geometry is only slightly changed by the coating. The influence of PVD/PECVD hard coatings on the load carrying capacity of cylindrical gears made of alloy steel is the subject of scientific research since the nineties. Several reports show that diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating systems reduce the occurrence of specific forms of gear damages, such as pitting or scuffing, and optimize the frictional behavior of gears. Despite the good results, PVD/PECVD coating technology could not be established in gear transmission technology yet. The use of a PVD/PECVD coating leads to higher component costs and longer manufacturing time. Furthermore, the surface finishing process before coating can influence the resulting tooth flank load capacity, and in some studies, a reduction of tooth root strength by the application of a coating can be observed. An extensive research concerning the influence of specific surface finishing processes on the tooth flank load capacity of uncoated and coated gears have not been focused in existing works. Furthermore, the existing works focus on the coating of both gears in contact and not on the coating of just one gear combined with optimized surface finishing processes. Therefore, the aim of this work is the investigation and determination of the influence of surface finishing processes on the impact of PVD/PECVD coatings concerning the pitting load capacity of gears. By means of running tests, the influence of different surface finishing processes on the pitting resistance is examined for the uncoated and coated tooth flank contact. The coated tooth flank contact will be further separated in the cases with just one or two coated gears in contact. By coating only one gear, a possible reduction of coating costs with simultaneous increase of the pitting resistance is targeted. As a DLC coating, a modified tungsten carbide coating (a-C:H:W (WC/C)) will be applied. Due to an optimized coating process, consistent coating adhesion without loss of hardness of the substrate material will be achieved. The result of this optimization will additionally be proven by the investigation of tooth root strength by means of pulsator testing. © Copyright 2015 by American Gear Manufactures Association. All right reserved.

Becker J.,Oerlikon Balzers Coating Germany GmbH | Grischke M.,Oerlikon Balzers Coating Germany GmbH
Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis | Year: 2010

Coated components are used in many applications in motorcars. The objective of first applications was mainly wear reduction. Currently friction reduction gets more and more in the spotlight. Coatings are systematically developed and implemented as a design element. The selection of a suitable coating or a coating system should be based on an evaluation of the complete tribological system. Friction reduction is usually only possible in the boundary friction and mixed lubrication regime. The roughness of body and counterbody and their running-in limits the possible effect. The compatibility of lubricants and coatings gets more and more important. As an example an engine oil with MoDTC additive results in increased friction of DLC coated valve-train components in certain speed ranges. A specially for this application adjusted metal-containing DLC (CrC/a-C:H) avoids this effect. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Trankenschuh B.,Oerlikon Balzers Coating Germany GmbH
Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis | Year: 2013

Before coating the surface of the component which shall be coated is cleaned. Several machines and chemicals can be used. After the cleaning the surface must be ready for coating. The influence of the machining parameters on the surface of a component is shown. The effectiveness of the cleaning processes prior to coating is discussed, and put in context to the whole manufacturing process. A classification of the manufacturing process should not be based on the different locations where it takes place. All the machining steps which influence the properties and the coat ability of the metal surface should be considered as connected. All these treatment steps are ideally tuned in a way that the surface can be coated flawlessly. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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