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San Ramon, CA, United States

Ding Z.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Liang J.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Li J.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Lu Y.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Frequent activation of the AKT serine-threonine kinase in cancer confers resistance to therapy. AKT is activated by a multistep process involving phosphatidylinositide (PtdIns) phosphate-mediated recruitment of AKT and its upstream kinases, including 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), to the inner surface of the cell membrane. PDK1 in the appropriate context phosphorylates AKT at threonine 308 (T308) to activate AKT. Whether PtdIns(3,4,5)Ps (PtdInsP3) binding and AKT membrane translocation mediate functions other than formation of a functional PDK1::AKT complex have not been fully elucidated. We fused complementary fragments of intensely fluorescent protein (IFP) to AKT1 and PDK1 to induce a stable complex to study the prerequisites of AKT1 phosphorylation and function. In the stabilized PDK1-IFPC::IFPN-AKT1 complex, AKT1 T308 phosphorylation was independent of PtdIns, as demonstrated by treatment with Phosphatidylinositol 3 Kinase (PI3K) inhibitors. Further when interaction with PtdIns and the cell membrane was prevented by creating PH-domain mutants of AKT1 (R25A) and PDK1 (R474A), AKT1 phosphorylation on T308 was maintained in the PDK1-IFPC::IFPN-AKT1 complex. The PDK1-IFPC::IFPN-AKT1 complex was sufficient for phosphorylation of known AKT substrates, and conferred resistance to inhibitors of PI3K (LY294002, PI103, GDC0941 and TGX286) but not inhibitors of the downstream TORC1 complex (rapamycin). Thus the locus of action of targeted therapeutics can be elucidated by the constitutively active AKT1 complex. Our data indicate that PtdIns and membrane localization are not required for AKT phosphorylation and activation, but rather serve to induce a functional physical interaction between PDK1 and AKT. The PDK1-IFPC::IFPN-AKT1 complex provides a cell-based platform to examine specificity of drugs targeting PI3K pathway components. © 2010 Ding et al.

Odyssey Thera Inc. and Odyssey Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Date: 2000-07-31

Gene constructs, cell lines and assay reagents all for use in pharmaceutical or drug discovery research or research using high throughout screening research methods; kits comprised primarily of gene constructs, cell lines and assay reagents for use in pharmaceutical or drug discovery research or research using high throughput screening research methods.

The present invention provides protein fragment complementation assays for drug discovery, in particular to identify compounds that activate or inhibit cellular pathways. Based on the selection of an interacting protein pair combined with an appropriate PCA reporter, the assays may be run in high-throughput or high-content mode and may be used in automated screening of libraries of compounds. The interacting pair may be selected by cDNA library screening; by gene-by-gene interaction mapping; or by prior knowledge of a pathway. Fluorescent and luminescent assays can be constructed using the methods provided herein. The selection of suitable PCA reporters for high-throughput or high-content (high-context) assay formats is described for a diversity of reporters, with particular detail provided for examples of monomeric enzymes and fluorescent proteins. Methods are described for constructing such assays for one or more steps in a biochemical pathway; testing the effects of compounds from combinatorial, natural product, peptide, antibody, nucleic acid or other diverse libraries on the protein or pathway(s) of interest; and using the results of the screening to identify specific compounds that activate or inhibit the protein or pathway(s) of interest. Single-color and multi-color assays are disclosed. Further disclosed are universal expression vectors with cassettes that allow the rapid construction of assays for a large and diverse number of gene/reporter combinations. The development of such assays is shown to be straightforward, providing for a broad, flexible and biologically relevant platform for drug discovery.

News Article | March 17, 2010
Site: www.xconomy.com

Odyssey Thera Inc. is a drug discovery company that has developed a global cellular pharmacology strategy for the identification of safe and effective medicines for a wide spectrum of human diseases.

Rienhoff H.Y.,Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute | Yeo C.-Y.,Ewha Womans University | Morissette R.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Khrebtukova I.,Illumina | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013

The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family of growth factors are key regulators of mammalian development and their dysregulation is implicated in human disease, notably, heritable vasculopathies including Marfan (MFS, OMIM #154700) and Loeys-Dietz syndromes (LDS, OMIM #609192). We described a syndrome presenting at birth with distal arthrogryposis, hypotonia, bifid uvula, a failure of normal post-natal muscle development but no evidence of vascular disease; some of these features overlap with MFS and LDS. A de novo mutation in TGFB3 was identified by exome sequencing. Several lines of evidence indicate the mutation is hypomorphic suggesting that decreased TGF-β signaling from a loss of TGFB3 activity is likely responsible for the clinical phenotype. This is the first example of a mutation in the coding portion of TGFB3 implicated in a clinical syndrome suggesting TGFB3 is essential for both human palatogenesis and normal muscle growth. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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