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Hiruma J.,Tokyo Medical University | Ogawa Y.,Juntendo University | Hiruma M.,Ochanomizu Institute for Medical Mycology and Allergology
Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2015

In this review, we summarize the status of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan in terms of epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and infection control. Since approximately 2000, outbreaks of T. tonsurans infections among combat sports club members have been reported frequently, with the infection then spreading to their friends and family members. The most common clinical features of T. tonsurans infection are tinea corporis, which is difficult to differentiate from eczema, and tinea capitis. Tinea capitis is classified as the seborrheic form, kerion celsi form or "black dot" form, although 90% or more of patients are asymptomatic carriers. The diagnosis of symptomatic T. tonsurans infection is established by potassium hydroxide examination and fungal culture. However, because there are many asymptomatic carriers of T. tonsurans infection, tests using the hairbrush culture method are necessary. An increase in asymptomatic carriers of T. tonsurans makes assessment of the current prevalence of the infection challenging and underscores the importance of educational efforts and public awareness campaigns to prevent T. tonsurans epidemics. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association. Source


Hiruma J.,Tokyo Medical University | Hiruma J.,Ochanomizu Institute for Medical Mycology and Allergology | Kano R.,Teikyo University | Kimura U.,Nihon University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2014

Trichophyton mentagrophytes were isolated from 19 of 20 guinea pigs in a children's corner of a zoo. The nucleotide sequence identity of the internal transcribed spacer region among 19 guinea pig isolates was 99%, including the reference strain of animal type 3 of T. mentagrophytes. The genomic DNA of all isolates were investigated for the mating (MAT) gene by specific polymerase chain reaction. The alpha-box gene was detected in all 19 isolates, while the high-mobility-group (HMG) gene was detected in only one of 19 isolates. Therefore, the guinea pig population harbored at least 2 MAT types of Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii. The T. mentagrophytes that was prevalent in this population may constitute a constant source of infection for persons coming into contact with guinea pigs. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association. Source


Hiruma M.,Juntendo University | Hiruma M.,Meiji Pharmaceutical University | Cho O.,Meiji Pharmaceutical University | Hiruma M.,Ochanomizu Institute for Medical Mycology and Allergology | And 3 more authors.
Mycopathologia | Year: 2014

Dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis are common afflictions of the human scalp caused by commensal scalp fungi belonging to the genus Malassezia. Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta are the predominant species found on the scalp. The intergenic spacer regions of these species' rRNA genes contain short sequence repeats (SSR): (GT)n and (CT)n in M. globosa and (CT)n and (AT)n in M. restricta. In the present study, we compared the genotypes (SSR) of M. globosa and M. restricta colonizing the scalps of patients with dandruff and healthy individuals. For M. globosa, the genotype (GT)10:(CT)8 (40.3 %, 25/62) was predominant followed by (GT)9:(CT)8 (14.5 %, 9/62) and (GT)11:(CT)8 (14.5 %, 9/62) in patients with dandruff, whereas the genotypes in healthy subjects were diverse. For M. restricta, the genotype (CT)6:(AT)6 (59.7 %, 37/62) was predominant followed by (CT)6:(AT)8 (24.2 %, 15/62) in patients with dandruff, while four genotypes, (CT)6:(AT)6 (10.5 %, 6/57), (CT)6:(AT)7 (22.8 %, 13/57), (CT)6:(AT)8 (17.5 %, 10/57), and (CT)6:(AT)10 (21.1 %, 12/57), accounted for 71.9 % of all combinations in healthy subjects. The results of this study suggest that the M. globosa genotype (GT)10:(CT)8 and the M. restricta genotype (CT)6:(AT)6 may be involved in the development of dandruff. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Sadamasa H.,Juntendo University | Hirose N.,Juntendo University | Hiruma M.,Ochanomizu Institute for Medical Mycology and Allergology | Ikeda S.,Juntendo University
Skin Research | Year: 2015

We conducted infection control against Trichophyton tonsurans infections based on the guidelines. The subjects were judo experts affiliated with the University Judo Federation of Tokyo during the period from 2008 to 2013. A hairbrush test was performed every April, and positive subjects received treatment. The following results were obtained: On average, 64.9% of subjects had a history of tinea, and the percentage of subjects positive for the hairbrush test was 113% in 2008 and then decreased by half. On average, 91.8% of subjects with positive cultures were asymptomatic carriers, and 0.53% of the entire population had symptoms. Regarding changes in the number of positive subjects by year in school, the percentage of subjects positive for Trichopityton tonsurans decreased as their year in school advanced. According to the results of reexaminations performed three months after treatment, 86.3% of subjects, on average, showed conversion to negativity. The guidelines are thus sufficiently effective. Source


Kawai M.,Juntendo University | Suzuki T.,Juntendo University | Hiruma M.,Ochanomizu Institute for Medical Mycology and Allergology | Ikeda S.,Juntendo University
Japanese Journal of Medical Mycology | Year: 2014

We conducted a retrospective cohort study on clinical and mycological features of tinea pedis and tinea unguium in psychiatric inpatients in Japan. Of the 317 inpatients (152 with schizophrenia and 165 with depression), 46.1% had tinea pedis and 23.7% had tinea unguium. Of those with tinea pedis, 48.6% also had tinea unguium. The most common clinical type of tinea pedis was the combination of interdigital type and hyperkeratotic type. The mean clinical score of tinea pedis was 5.9, and that of tinea unguium based on the Scoring Clinical Index for Onychomycosis(SCIO) was 15.8. The main causative species of tinea pedis were Trichophyton rubrum(68. 4%) and T. mentagrophytes(26.3%). No statistically significant differences were observed in incidence rates of tinea pedis or tinea unguium between men and women or between patients with schizophrenia and those with depression. As for incidence rates by age, patients with depression showed a single peak for tinea pedis and/or tinea unguium in their 50’s, while patients with schizophrenia exhibited twin peaks for tinea pedis and/or tinea unguium in their 50’s and 70’s. Both tinea pedis and tinea unguium tended to become more severe in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Our study suggests that schizophrenia and depression, like diabetes mellitus and HIV infections, should be regarded as risk factors for tinea pedis and tinea unguium. © 2014, Japanese Society for Medical Mycology. All rights reserved. Source

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