Oceans

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Ivins E.R.,Oceans | Watkins M.M.,Oceans | Yuan D.-N.,Oceans | Dietrich R.,TU Dresden | Rulke A.,Bundesamt fur Kartographie und Geodasie
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2011

Land glacier extent and volume at the northern and southern margins of the Drake Passage have been in a state of dramatic demise since the early 1990s. Here time-varying space gravity observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) are combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) bedrock uplift data to simultaneously solve for ice loss and for solid Earth glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) to Little Ice Age (LIA) cryospheric loading. The present-day ice loss rates are determined to be -26 ± 6 Gt/yr and -41.5 ± 9 Gt/yr in the Southern and Northern Patagonia Ice Fields (NPI+SPI) and Antarctic Peninsula (AP), respectively. These are consistent with estimates based upon thickness and flux changes. Bounds are recovered for elastic lithosphere thicknesses of 35 ≤ h ≤ 70 km and 20 ≤ h ≤ 45 km and for upper mantle viscosities of 4-8 × 1018 Pa s and 3-10 × 1019 Pa s (using a half-space approximation) for NPI+SPI and AP, respectively, using an iterative forward model strategy. Antarctic Peninsula ice models with a prolonged LIA, extending to A.D. 1930, are favored in all χ2 fits to the GPS uplift data. This result is largely decoupled from Earth structure assumptions. The GIA corrections account for roughly 20-60% of the space-determined secular gravity change. Collectively, the on-land ice losses correspond to volume increases of the oceans equivalent to 0.19 ± 0.045 mm/yr of sea level rise for the last 15 years. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.


Barner A.K.,Oregon State University | Lubchenco J.,Oregon State University | Costello C.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Gaines S.D.,University of California at Santa Barbara | And 5 more authors.
Oceanography | Year: 2015

Food security, economic opportunities, and other benefits provided by a healthy ocean are in jeopardy because of years of overexploitation of many fisheries, and the challenges will intensify in many locales as climate and the environment continue to change. The good news is that solutions are gaining traction. Mandates to end overfishing that use scientifically determined catch limits and rights-based approaches to fishery management have produced impressive results in ending overfishing and recovering depleted stocks. Similarly, spatial protections, such as fully protected marine reserves, are increasing the diversity, size, and abundance of species within reserves; some of that bounty reaches fished areas outside of them. We review the effects of combining catch limits, rights-based fisheries approaches, and establishment of marine reserves and discuss additional advantages of these combined solutions in securing sustainable and profitable fisheries, community goals, and healthy ecosystems. This paper highlights the contribution of emerging science-based solutions and the steps needed to replicate and scale these successes. Triple-wins for the environment, the economy, and society can be achieved through integrated fisheries management and protection as conscious steps toward reversing the current degradation of our ocean’s living resources. © 2015 The Oceanography Society. All rights reserved.

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