Saint-Georges-de-Luzençon, France
Saint-Georges-de-Luzençon, France

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Collen J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Collen J.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Porcel B.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Porcel B.,DeVry University | And 100 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2013

Red seaweeds are key components of coastal ecosystems and are economically important as food and as a source of gelling agents, but their genes and genomes have received little attention. Here we report the sequencing of the 105-Mbp genome of the florideophyte Chondrus crispus (Irish moss) and the annotation of the 9,606 genes. The genome features an unusual structure characterized by gene-dense regions surrounded by repeat-rich regions dominated by transposable elements. Despite its fairly large size, this genome shows features typical of compact genomes, e.g., on average only 0.3 introns per gene, short introns, low median distance between genes, small gene families, and no indication of large-scale genome duplication. The genome also gives insights into the metabolism of marine red algae and adaptations to the marine environment, including genes related to halogen metabolism, oxylipins, and multicellularity (microRNA processing and transcription factors). Particularly interesting are features related to carbohydrate metabolism, which include a minimalistic gene set for starch biosynthesis, the presence of cellulose synthases acquired before the primary endosymbiosis showing the polyphyly of cellulose synthesis in Archaeplastida, and cellulases absent in terrestrial plants as well as the occurrence of a mannosylglycerate synthase potentially originating from a marine bacterium. To explain the observations on genome structure and gene content, we propose an evolutionary scenario involving an ancestral red alga that was driven by early ecological forces to lose genes, introns, and intergenetic DNA; this loss was followed by an expansion of genome size as a consequence of activity of transposable elements. © PNAS 2013.

Pittera J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Pittera J.,Oceanic Plankton Group | Humily F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Humily F.,Oceanic Plankton Group | And 7 more authors.
ISME Journal | Year: 2014

Marine Synechococcus cyanobacteria constitute a monophyletic group that displays a wide latitudinal distribution, ranging from the equator to the polar fronts. Whether these organisms are all physiologically adapted to stand a large temperature gradient or stenotherms with narrow growth temperature ranges has so far remained unexplored. We submitted a panel of six strains, isolated along a gradient of latitude in the North Atlantic Ocean, to long- and short-term variations of temperature. Upon a downward shift of temperature, the strains showed strikingly distinct resistance, seemingly related to their latitude of isolation, with tropical strains collapsing while northern strains were capable of growing. This behaviour was associated to differential photosynthetic performances. In the tropical strains, the rapid photosystem II inactivation and the decrease of the antioxydant β-carotene relative to chl a suggested a strong induction of oxidative stress. These different responses were related to the thermal preferenda of the strains. The northern strains could grow at 10 C while the other strains preferred higher temperatures. In addition, we pointed out a correspondence between strain isolation temperature and phylogeny. In particular, clades I and IV laboratory strains were all collected in the coldest waters of the distribution area of marine Synechococus. We, however, show that clade I Synechococcus exhibit different levels of adaptation, which apparently reflect their location on the latitudinal temperature gradient. This study reveals the existence of lineages of marine Synechococcus physiologically specialised in different thermal niches, therefore suggesting the existence of temperature ecotypes within the marine Synechococcus radiation. © 2014 International Society for Microbial Ecology. All rights reserved.

Lehours A.-C.,University Blaise Pascal | Lehours A.-C.,CNRS Microorganisms Laboratory: Genome and Environment | Jeanthon C.,Oceanic Plankton Group | Jeanthon C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Despite an increasing number of studies over the last 15 years, aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophic (AAP) bacteria remain a puzzling functional group in terms of physiology, metabolism, and ecology. To contribute to a better knowledge of their environmental distribution, the present study aims at analyzing their diversity and structure at the boundary between the Norwegian, Greenland, and Barents Seas. The polymorphism of a marker gene encoding a sub-unit of the photosynthetic apparatus (pufM gene) was analyzed and attempted to be related to environmental parameters. The Atlantic or Arctic origin of water masses had a strong impact on the AAP bacterial community structure whose populations mostly belonged to the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. A majority (>60%) of pufM sequences were affiliated to the Gammaproteobacteria reasserting that this class often represents the major component of the AAP bacterial community in oceanic regions. Two alphaproteobacterial groups dominate locally suggesting that they can constitute key players in this marine system transiently. We found that temperature is a major determinant of alpha diversity of AAP bacteria in this marine biome with specific clades emerging locally according to the partitioning of water masses. Whereas we expected specific AAP bacterial populations in this peculiar and newly explored ecosystem, most pufM sequences were highly related to sequences retrieved elsewhere. This observation highlights that the studied area does not favor AAP bacteria endemism but also opens new questions about the truthfulness of biogeographical patterns and on the extent of AAP bacterial diversity. © 2015 Lehours and Jeanthon.

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