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Qingdao, China

The Ocean University of China , colloquially known as Haida is a university in Qingdao. As one of the key comprehensive universities of China, it is under the direct jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education. While offering studies in all major branches of technical and social science, the university is especially renowned for its marine science and fishery science departments. Wikipedia.


Zhang S.,Ocean University of China
Developmental and comparative immunology | Year: 2013

Both innate and adaptive immune-relevant factors are transferred from mother to offspring in fishes. These maternally-transferred factors include IgM, lysozymes, lectin, cathelicidin and complement components. Recently, yolk proteins, phosvitin and lipovitellin, have been shown to be maternally-transferred factors, functioning in the defense of teleost larvae against pathogens. Among these factors, the mode of action of complement components and yolk proteins has been explored, whereas that of all the other factors remains elusive. At present, the transfer mechanisms of maternally-derived immune factors are largely unknown although those of IgM and yolk protein transmission from mother to offspring have been reported in some fishes. Maternal transfer of immunity is affected by many elements, including biological factors, such as age and maturation, and environmental conditions experienced by brood fish, such as pathogens and nutritional supply. Practically, the manipulation of maternal immunity transfer can be used to enhance the survival rate of fish larvae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Zhang Q.,Ocean University of China
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2012

The ciliate subclass Haptoria is a diverse taxon that includes most of the free-living predators in the class Litostomatea. Phylogenetic study of this group was initially conducted using a single molecular marker small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA genes). Multi-gene analysis has been limited because very few other sequences were available. We performed phylogenetic analyses of Haptoria incorporating new SSU rRNA gene sequences from several debated members of the taxon, in particular, the first molecular data from Cyclotrichium. We also provided nine large-subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) gene sequences and 10 alpha-tubulin sequences from diverse haptorians, and two possible relatives of controversial haptorians (Plagiopylea, Prostomatea). Phylogenies inferred from the different molecules showed the following: (i) Cyclotrichium and Paraspathidium were clearly separated from the haptorids and even from class Litostomatea, rejecting their high-level taxonomic assignments based on morphology. Both genera branch instead with the classes Plagiopylea, Prostomatea and Oligohymenophora. This raises the possibility that the well-known but phylogenetically problematic cyclotrichiids Mesodinium and Myrionecta may also have affinities here, rather than with litostomes; (ii) the transfer of Trachelotractus to Litostomatea is supported, especially by the analyses of SSU rRNA and LSU rRNA genes, however, Trachelotractus and Chaenea (more uncertainly) generally form the two deepest lineages within litostomes; and (iii) phylogenies of the new molecular markers are consistent with SSU rRNA gene information in recovering order Pleurostomatida as monophyletic. However, Pleurostomatida branches cladistically within order Haptorida, as does subclass Trichostomatia (on the basis of SSU rRNA phylogenies). Our results suggest that the class-level taxonomy of ciliates is still not resolved, and also that a systematic revision of litostomes is required, beginning at high taxonomic levels (taxa currently ranked as subclasses and orders). Source


It has been suggested that statistical parsimony network analysis could be used to get an indication of species represented in a set of nucleotide data, and the approach has been used to discuss species boundaries in some taxa. Based on 635 base pairs of the mitochondrial protein-coding gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI), we analyzed 152 nemertean specimens using statistical parsimony network analysis with the connection probability set to 95%. The analysis revealed 15 distinct networks together with seven singletons. Statistical parsimony yielded three networks supporting the species status of Cephalothrix rufifrons, C. major and C. spiralis as they currently have been delineated by morphological characters and geographical location. Many other networks contained haplotypes from nearby geographical locations. Cladistic structure by maximum likelihood analysis overall supported the network analysis, but indicated a false positive result where subnetworks should have been connected into one network/species. This probably is caused by undersampling of the intraspecific haplotype diversity. Statistical parsimony network analysis provides a rapid and useful tool for detecting possible undescribed/cryptic species among cephalotrichid nemerteans based on COI gene. It should be combined with phylogenetic analysis to get indications of false positive results, i.e., subnetworks that would have been connected with more extensive haplotype sampling. Source


Chen X.,Ocean University of China | Chen X.,University of Washington | Tung K.-K.,University of Washington
Science | Year: 2014

A vacillating global heat sink at intermediate ocean depths is associated with different climate regimes of surface warming under anthropogenic forcing: The latter part of the 20th century saw rapid global warming as more heat stayed near the surface. In the 21st century, surface warming slowed as more heat moved into deeper oceans. In situ and reanalyzed data are used to trace the pathways of ocean heat uptake. In addition to the shallow La Niña-like patterns in the Pacific that were the previous focus, we found that the slowdown is mainly caused by heat transported to deeper layers in the Atlantic and the Southern oceans, initiated by a recurrent salinity anomaly in the subpolar North Atlantic. Cooling periods associated with the latter deeper heat-sequestration mechanism historically lasted 20 to 35 years. Source


The present application relates to the compounds of formula I (I) as well as their use for inhibiting at least one of AKT-1, FAK and PKC and in the treatment and/or prevention of metastatic diseases.

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