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Kurokawa J.,Asia Center for Air Pollution Research | Kurokawa J.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Ohara T.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Morikawa T.,Japan Automobile Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2013

We have updated the Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) as version 2.1. REAS 2.1 includes most major air pollutants and greenhouse gases from each year during 2000 and 2008 and following areas of Asia: East, Southeast, South, and Central Asia and the Asian part of Russia. Emissions are estimated for each country and region using updated activity data and parameters. Monthly gridded data with a 0.25 × 0.25 resolution are also provided. Asian emissions for each species in 2008 are as follows (with their growth rate from 2000 to 2008): 56.9 Tg (+34%) for SO2, 53.9 Tg (+54%) for NOx, 359.5 Tg (+34%) for CO, 68.5 Tg (+46%) for non-methane volatile organic compounds, 32.8 Tg (+17%) for NH3, 36.4 Tg (+45%) for PM10, 24.7 Tg (+42%) for PM 2.5, 3.03 Tg (+35%) for black carbon, 7.72 Tg (+21%) for organic carbon, 182.2 Tg (+32%) for CH4, 5.80 Tg (+18%) for N2O, and 16.0 Pg (+57%) for CO2. By country, China and India were respectively the largest and second largest contributors to Asian emissions. Both countries also had higher growth rates in emissions than others because of their continuous increases in energy consumption, industrial activities, and infrastructure development. In China, emission mitigation measures have been implemented gradually. Emissions of SO2 in China increased from 2000 to 2006 and then began to decrease as flue-gas desulphurization was installed to large power plants. On the other hand, emissions of air pollutants in total East Asia except for China decreased from 2000 to 2008 owing to lower economic growth rates and more effective emission regulations in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Emissions from other regions generally increased from 2000 to 2008, although their relative shares of total Asian emissions are smaller than those of China and India. Tables of annual emissions by country and region broken down by sub-sector and fuel type, and monthly gridded emission data with a resolution of 0.25 × 0.25 for the major sectors are available from the following URL: http://www.nies.go.jp/REAS/. © 2013 Author(s).


Narazaki T.,University of Tokyo | Sato K.,University of Tokyo | Abernathy K.J.,National Geographic Remote Imaging | Marshall G.J.,National Geographic Remote Imaging | Miyazaki N.,Ocean Policy Research Foundation
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Identifying characteristics of foraging activity is fundamental to understanding an animals' lifestyle and foraging ecology. Despite its importance, monitoring the foraging activities of marine animals is difficult because direct observation is rarely possible. In this study, we use an animal-borne imaging system and three-dimensional data logger simultaneously to observe the foraging behaviour of large juvenile and adult sized loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in their natural environment. Video recordings showed that the turtles foraged on gelatinous prey while swimming in mid-water (i.e., defined as epipelagic water column deeper than 1 m in this study). By linking video and 3D data, we found that mid-water foraging events share the common feature of a marked deceleration phase associated with the capture and handling of the sluggish prey. Analysis of high-resolution 3D movements during mid-water foraging events, including presumptive events extracted from 3D data using deceleration in swim speed as a proxy for foraging (detection rate = 0.67), showed that turtles swam straight toward prey in 171 events (i.e., turning point absent) but made a single turn toward the prey an average of 5.7±6.0 m before reaching the prey in 229 events (i.e., turning point present). Foraging events with a turning point tended to occur during the daytime, suggesting that turtles primarily used visual cues to locate prey. In addition, an incident of a turtle encountering a plastic bag while swimming in mid-water was recorded. The fact that the turtle's movements while approaching the plastic bag were analogous to those of a true foraging event, having a turning point and deceleration phase, also support the use of vision in mid-water foraging. Our study shows that integrated video and high-resolution 3D data analysis provides unique opportunities to understand foraging behaviours in the context of the sensory ecology involved in prey location. © 2013 Narazaki et al.


Wakita K.,Ocean Policy Research Foundation | Yagi N.,University of Tokyo
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2013

In Japan, the Guideline for Integrated Coastal Management Plans (Guideline) was issued in 2000 to promote planning and implementation of Integrated Coastal Management (ICM). However, to date, no local governments have developed ICM plans in line with the Guideline. This paper clarifies the reasons for the poor implementation using a theoretical approach, the Policy Implementation Framework developed by Mazmanian and Sabatier. Also, an international comparison was conducted of acts and policies related to ICM in the United States, Republic of Korea, European Union, and Partnerships for Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA). Lack of a scheme that would provide national subsidies to local governments after approval of their ICM plans by the national government, the unviable districting of coastal areas in which they exceed the single administrative boundary of a local government, existence of similar initiatives for Seacoast Conservation Plans which are somewhat overlapping with ICM plans, and the diminished position of the coordinating national agency are identified as major factors hindering implementation of the Guideline. The findings of this paper should serve as a reference to the national government of Japan in avoiding similar deficiencies with the Guideline when developing detailed framework/institutional arrangements to promote ICM planning and implementation in the future, and could also be of assistance to countries developing national policies/strategies on ICM. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Maiwa K.,Ocean Policy Research Foundation | Masumoto Y.,University of Tokyo | Yamagata T.,University of Tokyo
Journal of Oceanography | Year: 2010

The spatial structures and propagation characteristics of coastal trapped waves (CTWs) along the southern and eastern coasts of Australia are investigated using observed daily mean sea level data and results from a high-resolution ocean general circulation model (OGCM), and by conducting sensitivity studies with idealized numerical models. The results obtained from the sea level observations show that shortterm variations, with a typical period of 1 to 2 weeks, dominate the sea level variability in the southern half of Australia. The signal propagates anticlockwise around Australia with a propagation speed of 4.5 m/s or faster in the western and southern coasts and 2.1 to 3.6 m/s in the eastern coast. Strong seasonality of the wave activity, with large amplitude during austral winter, is also observed. It turns out that the waves are mainly generated by synoptic weather disturbances in the southwestern and southeastern regions. The numerical experiment with idealized wind forcing and realistic topography confirms that the propagating signals have characteristics of the CTW both in the southern and eastern coasts. Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the difference in the phase speed between the coasts and reduction of the amplitude of the waves in the eastern coast are attributed to the different shape of the continental shelf in each region. The structures and the propagation characteristics of the CTWs around Australia are well reproduced in OFES (OGCM for the Earth Simulator) with dominant contribution from the first mode, although meso-scale eddies may modify the structure of the CTWs in the eastern coast. It is also found that generation or reinforcement of the waves by the wind forcing in the southern part of the eastern coast is necessary to obtain realistically large amplitude of the CTWs in the eastern coast. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.


Terashima H.,Ocean Policy Research Foundation
Coastal Management | Year: 2012

This article introduces the background, contents, and challenges of the new Japanese Basic Act on Ocean Policy, adopted in 2007, to provide a framework to address ocean issues in a comprehensive and integrated manner, and to coordinate and cooperate with other countries in securing a legal order on the oceans, promote their peaceful use, conserve natural resources, and protect the marine environment. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Kitagawa H.,Ocean Policy Research Foundation
Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference | Year: 2015

The steady state conditions of a running model, in general, are always required in ship model tests at an ice tank to obtain average resistance and propulsion performance of a ship. However, model test measurements at an ice tank would often be carried out in unsteady state conditions of a running model, probably due to the limitation of the tank length and cost effectiveness in conducting the tests. In this paper some comments were made for the time and distance constants in self-propulsion tests at an ice tank, where a ship model runs after a towing carriage which runs at a steady speed and its yaw and sway motions of the model are confined by a guiding device. Copyright © 2015 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE).


Kitagawa H.,Ocean Policy Research Foundation
Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference | Year: 2013

The Northern Sea Route (NSR) has been open up to the seaborne trade between Europe and Asia. Along the NSR, there are several straits, and among them the Sannikov Strait was a choke point of the southern route of the NSR, particularly for large vessels. By the global warming blessing, large vessels have now been able to sail via the northern route of the NSR. However, since the southern route lines the coast, shipping companies are still interested in this route. Some of them would like to examine the shallow water effects on passing vessels through those straits. In response to their requests, resistance, self-propulsion test results and stopping ability test of a tanker model were presented to grasp the fundamentals of the effects of shallow water on ship performance of full ships with large block coefficients. Copyright © 2013 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE).


Kitagawa H.,Ocean Policy Research Foundation | Otsuka N.,North Japan Port Consultants Co.
Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference | Year: 2014

Ice-diminishing Arctic seas offer shorter navigation distances between Asian and European markets, as well as the benefits of reduction in fuel costs and overall emissions from sailing vessels. To manage ice-classed ships efficiently, hub-port scenarios will be needed to respond to growing demand in shipping via the Northern Sea Route (NSR) and to minimize the risk of accidents and pollution. Tomakomai in Hokkaido has a marked geopolitical advantage as an Asian gate for the NSR. This paper examines a concept for a new Tomakomai hub-port mainly from its geo-technological aspect. Copyright © 2014 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE).


Furukawa K.,Ocean Policy Research Foundation
Journal of Coastal Conservation | Year: 2014

On 26 March 2003, the Tokyo Bay Renaissance Promotion Council, composed of six central government agencies and eight regional government bodies endorsed an "Action Plan for Tokyo Bay Renaissance". Under the action plan, the monitoring campaign of bay environment has been started in 2008. Dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, and temperature were monitored in sea area, chemical oxygen demand, temperature, and discharge were monitored in river area. These data sets show a detailed snap shot of hypoxic water occurrence in the inner part of the bay. A series of environment maps for Tokyo Bay have been published for sharing the data. For example, in 2012, goby census has been implemented to show importance of biological - environmental relations. Participants of the census are 240, and the more than 8,000 data of fished gobies has been corrected. It clearly shows relation between growth and special environment variation. From just few trial of the campaigns are not enough to answer all questions, nevertheless, these trials shows its importance and efficiency on bay environment monitoring and management as one of the ICM tools. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Hayashi M.,Ocean Policy Research Foundation
Center for Oceans Law and Policy | Year: 2012

The dispute between Japan and China over the development of hydrocarbon resources in the East China Sea reached a significant stage in June 2008 with the release of a "Joint Press Statement" announcing that in order to make the East China Sea (where the sea boundary had not been delimited) a "Sea of Peace, Cooperation and Friendship," the two countries had agreed to cooperate with each other and had taken the first step to that end. The agreement, which is without prejudice to the legal positions of both countries during the transitional period pending agreement on the delimitation, contained an "understanding" on joint development in the East China Sea, and another "understanding" on the development of the Shirakaba (Chunxiao in Chinese) oil and gas field. The agreement, however, was merely a first step, recording a broad political agreement to pursue negotiations for achieving cooperative development activities in the area. The bilateral talks have since been stalled for nearly three years, and differing views have been expressed by commentators at the governmental and academic levels regarding the implications of some aspects of the agreement. The author believes that the most crucial issue to be settled is that of how to define the potential area for joint development. Since the 2008 agreement may be regarded to contain provisional arrangements under Articles 74 and 83 of UNCLOS, the area concerned, in the author's view, must be considered to cover the entire disputed area where the legal title to the continental shelf of the two States with opposing coasts of less than 400-nautical miles in distance, and not the extent of their unilateral claims, overlap. The legal title in such area under international law, as developed in the jurisprudence of the ICJ and arbitral tribunals since the establishment of the EEZ institution, extends up to 200-nm from the baselines, without regard to geological and geomorphological features of the seabed. In the case of the East China Sea, therefore, the joint development area should be the area in the central part of the Sea where the 200-nm lines measured from the coasts of the two States overlap. Another subject of further negotiation is the arrangement over the Shirakaba (Chunxiao) field, on which the understanding is clear in providing in principle that Japanese corporations are to participate in accordance with Chinese law in the development of resources. Here, the two parties should avoid controversial attempts to characterize the arrangement in terms of joint development or otherwise, and should focus their efforts to work out specific arrangement on the basis of the basic agreement.

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