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Terashima H.,Ocean Policy Research Foundation
Coastal Management | Year: 2012

This article introduces the background, contents, and challenges of the new Japanese Basic Act on Ocean Policy, adopted in 2007, to provide a framework to address ocean issues in a comprehensive and integrated manner, and to coordinate and cooperate with other countries in securing a legal order on the oceans, promote their peaceful use, conserve natural resources, and protect the marine environment. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Wakita K.,Ocean Policy Research Foundation | Yagi N.,University of Tokyo
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2013

In Japan, the Guideline for Integrated Coastal Management Plans (Guideline) was issued in 2000 to promote planning and implementation of Integrated Coastal Management (ICM). However, to date, no local governments have developed ICM plans in line with the Guideline. This paper clarifies the reasons for the poor implementation using a theoretical approach, the Policy Implementation Framework developed by Mazmanian and Sabatier. Also, an international comparison was conducted of acts and policies related to ICM in the United States, Republic of Korea, European Union, and Partnerships for Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA). Lack of a scheme that would provide national subsidies to local governments after approval of their ICM plans by the national government, the unviable districting of coastal areas in which they exceed the single administrative boundary of a local government, existence of similar initiatives for Seacoast Conservation Plans which are somewhat overlapping with ICM plans, and the diminished position of the coordinating national agency are identified as major factors hindering implementation of the Guideline. The findings of this paper should serve as a reference to the national government of Japan in avoiding similar deficiencies with the Guideline when developing detailed framework/institutional arrangements to promote ICM planning and implementation in the future, and could also be of assistance to countries developing national policies/strategies on ICM. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Kurokawa J.,Asia Center for Air Pollution Research | Kurokawa J.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Ohara T.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Morikawa T.,Japan Automobile Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2013

We have updated the Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) as version 2.1. REAS 2.1 includes most major air pollutants and greenhouse gases from each year during 2000 and 2008 and following areas of Asia: East, Southeast, South, and Central Asia and the Asian part of Russia. Emissions are estimated for each country and region using updated activity data and parameters. Monthly gridded data with a 0.25 × 0.25 resolution are also provided. Asian emissions for each species in 2008 are as follows (with their growth rate from 2000 to 2008): 56.9 Tg (+34%) for SO2, 53.9 Tg (+54%) for NOx, 359.5 Tg (+34%) for CO, 68.5 Tg (+46%) for non-methane volatile organic compounds, 32.8 Tg (+17%) for NH3, 36.4 Tg (+45%) for PM10, 24.7 Tg (+42%) for PM 2.5, 3.03 Tg (+35%) for black carbon, 7.72 Tg (+21%) for organic carbon, 182.2 Tg (+32%) for CH4, 5.80 Tg (+18%) for N2O, and 16.0 Pg (+57%) for CO2. By country, China and India were respectively the largest and second largest contributors to Asian emissions. Both countries also had higher growth rates in emissions than others because of their continuous increases in energy consumption, industrial activities, and infrastructure development. In China, emission mitigation measures have been implemented gradually. Emissions of SO2 in China increased from 2000 to 2006 and then began to decrease as flue-gas desulphurization was installed to large power plants. On the other hand, emissions of air pollutants in total East Asia except for China decreased from 2000 to 2008 owing to lower economic growth rates and more effective emission regulations in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Emissions from other regions generally increased from 2000 to 2008, although their relative shares of total Asian emissions are smaller than those of China and India. Tables of annual emissions by country and region broken down by sub-sector and fuel type, and monthly gridded emission data with a resolution of 0.25 × 0.25 for the major sectors are available from the following URL: http://www.nies.go.jp/REAS/. © 2013 Author(s). Source


Narazaki T.,University of Tokyo | Sato K.,University of Tokyo | Abernathy K.J.,National Geographic Remote Imaging | Marshall G.J.,National Geographic Remote Imaging | Miyazaki N.,Ocean Policy Research Foundation
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Identifying characteristics of foraging activity is fundamental to understanding an animals' lifestyle and foraging ecology. Despite its importance, monitoring the foraging activities of marine animals is difficult because direct observation is rarely possible. In this study, we use an animal-borne imaging system and three-dimensional data logger simultaneously to observe the foraging behaviour of large juvenile and adult sized loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in their natural environment. Video recordings showed that the turtles foraged on gelatinous prey while swimming in mid-water (i.e., defined as epipelagic water column deeper than 1 m in this study). By linking video and 3D data, we found that mid-water foraging events share the common feature of a marked deceleration phase associated with the capture and handling of the sluggish prey. Analysis of high-resolution 3D movements during mid-water foraging events, including presumptive events extracted from 3D data using deceleration in swim speed as a proxy for foraging (detection rate = 0.67), showed that turtles swam straight toward prey in 171 events (i.e., turning point absent) but made a single turn toward the prey an average of 5.7±6.0 m before reaching the prey in 229 events (i.e., turning point present). Foraging events with a turning point tended to occur during the daytime, suggesting that turtles primarily used visual cues to locate prey. In addition, an incident of a turtle encountering a plastic bag while swimming in mid-water was recorded. The fact that the turtle's movements while approaching the plastic bag were analogous to those of a true foraging event, having a turning point and deceleration phase, also support the use of vision in mid-water foraging. Our study shows that integrated video and high-resolution 3D data analysis provides unique opportunities to understand foraging behaviours in the context of the sensory ecology involved in prey location. © 2013 Narazaki et al. Source


Kitagawa H.,Ocean Policy Research Foundation
Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference | Year: 2015

The steady state conditions of a running model, in general, are always required in ship model tests at an ice tank to obtain average resistance and propulsion performance of a ship. However, model test measurements at an ice tank would often be carried out in unsteady state conditions of a running model, probably due to the limitation of the tank length and cost effectiveness in conducting the tests. In this paper some comments were made for the time and distance constants in self-propulsion tests at an ice tank, where a ship model runs after a towing carriage which runs at a steady speed and its yaw and sway motions of the model are confined by a guiding device. Copyright © 2015 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE). Source

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